John Barry

Stories by John Barry

  • The Pentagon's Guru

    In a city where few stars shine for longer than a presidential term or two, Andrew Marshall has inhabited the same set of dingy offices in the Pentagon (suite 3A930), just down the hall from the secretary of Defense (3E880), for the past 28 years. In a government where leaking is an instrument of policy, he shuns publicity. At briefings, he drones and mumbles; the military brass have nicknamed him Yoda. And as a schmoozer, he is described--by a friend--as "almost impossible to conduct a conversation with." Yet to his many admirers, Marshall is a cult figure, the most original thinker in the defense establishment. ...
  • Hard Sell

    President Bush's team of top-level officials fans out across Europe this week to begin selling the Administration's ideas for a new nuclear strategy and the case for missile defenses. Their mission, NEWSWEEK has learned, is to pave the way for the President's scheduled summit with fellow NATO leaders in Brussels in mid-June. The White House goal is to have Bush come home from that sesssion carrying a joint NATO statement echoing language similar to what Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair agreed on at Camp David in February: "We recognize the existence of a common threat stemming from the growing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.....We need to obstruct and deter these new threats with a strategy that encompasses both offensive and defensive systems." ...
  • A New Pacific Strategy

    When Disney Productions descended on Hawaii last year to film its forthcoming movie about Pearl Harbor, director Michael Bay was ecstatic at the condition of the U.S. naval base there. "Admiral, this is great," he said to the commander of U.S. forces in the Pacific, Adm. Dennis Blair. "To film a historical movie here we don't have to change a thing." ...
  • Fire In The Mountains

    Sulejman Ramadani, 41, was opening his garage door one day last week when a sniper's bullet pierced his forehead. Now the engineer's two sons, 4 and 2, have no father. The Ramadanis are ethnic Albanians, like most of their neighbors in Macedonia's second largest city, Tetovo. The same is true of the guerrillas who control the heights above the city. That awkward fact hasn't stopped the sharpshooters and mortar crews from raining death onto their ethnic kinsmen below. The gunmen may eventually go after the Slavs, who make up two thirds of Macedonia's population and largely control the former Yugoslav Republic's economy and government. Right now, though, the fighters have implicitly declared war on a more helpless foe: moderate Albanians. ...
  • Walking Back Into A War

    It was the biggest accomplishment of his first solo trip abroad, but Secretary of State Colin Powell didn't seem triumphant. Traveling to Damascus at a time when the United States has few friends in the Arab world, Powell extracted a pledge from Syrian leader Bashar Assad to plug the gap Assad's nation had opened in U.N. economic sanctions against Iraq. Syria would no longer pay Saddam directly for Iraqi oil (the money would go to a U.N. escrow account instead). In return, Washington would drop most of the trade embargo against Iraq, banning only military and some "dual use" items--consumer goods with a military application. "Very interesting," said Assad, the young, lanky son of former Syrian dictator Hafez Assad. "We've been telling you [to do] that for two years." Powell smiled, but his mood seemed as restrained as the Syrian pledge. "These are not decisions I make on my own," he told Assad. Then Powell joked, somewhat wistfully, "It was different when I was a general." ...
  • Familiar Waters

    Donald Rumsfeld is not exactly the sort of man a Georgetown hostess would describe as "cozy." While he's charming when he wants to be, the former Princeton football and wrestling captain and Navy pilot has been known through his long career as a tough infighter. He is blunt and sometimes cutting in private, stern and forceful in public. But to George W. Bush, Rumsfeld, his nominee for secretary of Defense, is as comforting as the goose-feather pillow that Bush took along on the campaign trail to help him sleep at night. As the president-elect all but completed filling his cabinet last week, it became strikingly apparent whom he wants by his side in the Oval Office. For the jobs presidents usually deem most important, the offices that must cope with economic and national-security crises, Bush tapped a certain type: seasoned, non-ideological, pragmatic, discreet--and, perhaps above all, loyal. Even W's most conservative domestic appointees--John Ashcroft for attorney general and Gale...
  • Leader Of The Pack

    Stories that people tell about Colin Powell always seem to have the same ending. Like the time in 1972 when Powell, then a newly minted major in the Army, was trying out for a prestigious White House fellowship. The final shortlist had 33 candidates, and after Powell left the interviewing room, the chairman of the selection board looked around and said, "Right, so it's Colin Powell and who else?" Later, when Powell became a general, his Pentagon staffers looked upon him "almost like a sage," recalls one. "He was magnificent," says the officer. "He was just right all the time." Much later, after Powell became chairman of the Joint Chiefs, his incisive mind and calm manner brought order to meandering national-security meetings in the early Clinton administration. "It was so clear to all of us that he could do any job in the room, up to and including president," the late Les Aspin, the former Defense secretary, once recalled. "You pay attention to Colin."The entire world is going to do...
  • A Cry From The Deep

    The letter came from a steel tomb on the floor of the Barents Sea. "All personnel from compartments six, seven and eight moved to the ninth," wrote a round-faced, 27-year-old naval officer, Lt. Capt. Dmitry Kolesnikov. Nearly two hours had passed since the shattering explosion that sank the Russian nuclear submarine Kursk last Aug. 12, killing most of the 118 crew members almost immediately. The watertight ninth compartment was designed for escape, and it happened to be the farthest part of the submarine from the site of the explosion. "There are 23 of us here," wrote Kolesnikov. Apparently some of the survivors were hideously burned; others had been injured by flying debris. Two or three sailors tried to flee through a hatch on the top of the compartment but found the escape tube flooded. The lights were dimming, the temperature was dropping, water was leaking in and the air was turning foul. "None of us," Kolesnikov wrote, "can get to the surface."The note began with neat, cursive...
  • A Mystery In The Deep

    The floor of the Barents Sea at 69'40" north, 37'35" east, is a place of pure, disorienting darkness. Shine a light and mostly what you'd see is decomposing matter--dead plankton, particles from old skins shed by crustaceans, bits of waste from marine life above--what divers call "marine snow." The term is doubly apt because arctic water is very cold here, 35 to 40 degrees Fahrenheit. The place is mostly quiet. But at odd intervals last week, faint metallic pings could be picked up by electronic listening devices. They came from the great black husk of the Kursk, a crippled Russian submarine stranded on the bottom. Russian authorities say a sailor was banging out messages on the hull, probably with a hammer. His 19,000-ton nuclear-powered vessel had no power, no light. Oxygen was dwindling, replaced by deadly carbon dioxide. Many of the sailor's comrades were certainly dead as a result of a catastrophic accident; others were likely bloodied, bruised, shivering in the frigid dark of...
  • A Shot In The Dark

    It was classic Bill Clinton, the statesman as salesman. As he toured the capitals of Europe last week on his way to a Moscow summit, he smoothly tried to sell America's allies on the concept of a national missile defense. With the cold war over, Clinton argued, the biggest nuclear threat comes from "rogue states" like North Korea or Iraq that might be tempted to lob a nuclear warhead, or--more likely--use their missiles as chips in a game of blackmail. The United States not only has the technology to stop such a threat; the world's most magnanimous superpower is willing to share its know-how with "other civilized nations," said Clinton. To fail to do so would be "unethical," the president declared.His hosts listened warily. "We have to be very careful that any such project does not retrigger... a renewed arms race," warned German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder. The reception in Moscow over the weekend was expected to be even chillier. The Russians are fearful that Washington will junk...
  • Probing A Slaughter

    Veterans of operation desert Storm sometimes call the Battle of Rumaylah the Battle of the Junkyard, because when it was over, the battlefield was scattered with the burned-out remains of 600 Iraqi tanks, armored personnel carriers, guns and trucks. Actually, it wasn't much of a battle. Only one American tank was lost --burned when an Iraqi tank exploded beside it --and only a single American soldier was injured.Last week, in The New Yorker magazine, a 25,000-word article by famed investigative reporter Seymour Hersh raised serious questions about the commander who ordered this one-sided attack, Gen. Barry McCaffrey, a much decorated Vietnam veteran who is now President Clinton's chief adviser on drug policy. The article quoted eye-witnesses and senior officers who questioned McCaffrey's judgment for ordering an all-out assault on a retreating Iraqi tank division two days after the war had been halted by an American ceasefire. Even if the Iraqis had fired on McCaffrey's 24th...
  • The Kosovo Cover-Up

    It was acclaimed as the most successful air campaign ever. "A turning point in the history of warfare," wrote the noted military historian John Keegan, proof positive that "a war can be won by airpower alone." At a press conference last June, after Serbian strongman Slobodan Milosevic agreed to pull his Army from Kosovo at the end of a 78-day aerial bombardment that had not cost the life of a single NATO soldier or airman, Defense Secretary William Cohen declared, "We severely crippled the [Serb] military forces in Kosovo by destroying more than 50 percent of the artillery and one third of the armored vehicles." Displaying colorful charts, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Gen. Henry Shelton claimed that NATO's air forces had killed "around 120 tanks," "about 220 armored personnel carriers" and "up to 450 artillery and mortar pieces."An antiseptic war, fought by pilots flying safely three miles high. It seems almost too good to be true--and it was. In fact--as some critics suspected at...
  • The New Urban Battlefield

    The battle of Grozny was long and bloody--for Russian attackers as well as the Chechen defenders. But you won't see any condescending head-wagging in the U.S. military. As one senior Pentagon official said last week, "I'm not so sure that we'd do a whole lot better than the Russians." That's a problem; in the view of many military analysts, the killing grounds of Grozny offer a hellish view of tomorrow's warfare.The U.S. Army used to have a simple way of dealing with cities: avoid them. The cost in street-fighting casualties was just too steep. That was one reason that, in 1945, the Army didn't try to take Berlin, a battle that Gen. Omar Bradley told Dwight Eisenhower "might cost us 100,000 men." Bradley was right. The Red Army, which did fight its way into Berlin, lost 102,000 men doing so; 125,000 German civilians died in the battle, and 150,000 to 200,000 German troops. If cities couldn't be avoided, U.S. military doctrine had a fallback plan: flatten them, which is what, in 1968...
  • Not Your Father's Army

    Gen. Eric Shinseki, chief of staff of the Army, looks and sounds like the future. A Japanese-American, the first nonwhite to hold the Army's top command post, he talks about the need to "transform" the Army into a leaner, quicker fighting force that can go anywhere in the world on short notice. He wants to be able to put five divisions on the front lines inside of a month--versus the six months it took to field Operation Desert Storm. He has even openly discussed replacing the Army's most sainted weapon, the tank, with lighter wheeled armored vehicles.Ambitious and farsighted ideas, but meanwhile the Army continues work on the Crusader, its latest "big gun"--a self-propelled, computer-aimed 155mm howitzer cannon built to rapid-fire while careering about the battlefield at 60 mph. The Army wants to buy 1,100 Crusaders at a cost of about $11 billion. The problem: the Crusader's firing-control system is about as complex as that of a fighter plane and difficult to maintain under combat...
  • Bittersweet Revenge

    Nawaz Sharif was democratically elected, but he isn't a democrat. The former Pakistani prime minister, ousted last week in a coup, acted more like a despot after his landslide election victory in 1997. He amended the Constitution to strip the president of the power to remove him. He sacked the chief justice and carried out vicious vendettas against journalists who dared to criticize him or his cronies. He treated the country like a family estate, seeding national institutions with relatives and friends. And he did all this even as he led the economy to further ruin. So when Nawaz last week tried to oust his popular Army chief, Gen. Musharraf Parvez, the generals ousted him instead. People cheered in the streets, burning pictures of Nawaz and handing out sweets to passersby. A venerable Pakistani newspaper, The Frontier Post, summed up the mood in an editorial: "The Nawaz government has met the fate it deserved."So Pakistan's latest coup isn't anything to worry about, right? Wrong....
  • All Bets Are Off

    The Democrats thought they had a deal. At 2:30 last Tuesday afternoon, Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle told his colleagues that he had just shaken hands with Republican leader Trent Lott. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, said Daschle, would not be brought to the Senate floor, where it faced certain defeat. In return, the Democrat had promised that his colleagues would not try to get the treaty considered next year--in effect, a commitment to take the issue of nuclear testing out of electoral politics.Daschle was mistaken. Lott, who would later say, "There was never a handshake, there was never an agreement," met later Tuesday with Republican hard-liners, including Senate Foreign Relations Committee chairman Jesse Helms and Arizona Sen. Jon Kyl. Both men have long been convinced that the treaty's ban on nuclear testing was effectively unverifiable, unenforceable and against the national interests of the United States. His colleagues left Lott in no doubt; if he did a deal with...
  • The Myths Of The Test Ban Treaty

    The U.S. Senate debate on the comprehensive Test Ban Treaty lived down to expectations. As usual when nuclear weapons are the topic, both sides hyped their cases and avoided real issues. For its supporters, the treaty was "a watershed." For its opponents, rejection was a duty to generations unborn: his "nay" vote, Republican Senate leader Trent Lott explained, "was about my country. My children."Spare us. The test ban treaty is, by some margin, more symbol than substance. Its passage would have less impact on the spread of nuclear weapons than, say, the Senate's (less publicized) decisions to provide funding to help Russia guard its vast and vulnerable nuclear stockpiles. The real flaw in the test ban treaty is a fatal confusion between arms control and disarmament. Masked by that are fundamental questions about the role the United States will play in global security during the next 50 years, and about what part nuclear weapons should play in that. Therein lies the real topic for...
  • Another Country On The Brink

    Nawaz Sharif was democratically elected, but he isn't a democrat. The former Pakistani prime minister, ousted last week in a military coup, acted more like a despot after his landslide election victory in 1997. He amended the Constitution to strip the power of the president and remove the prime minister. Nawaz sacked the chief justice and carried out vicious vendettas against journalists who dared to criticize him or his cronies. He treated the country like a family estate, seeding national institutions with relatives and friends. And he did all of this even as he led the economy to further ruin. So when Nawaz last week tried to oust his popular Army chief, Gen. Musharraf Parvez, the generals ousted him instead. People cheered in the streets, burning pictures of Nawaz and handing out sweets to passersby. A Pakistani newspaper, the Frontier Post, summed up the national mood in an editorial: "The Nawaz government has met the fate it deserved."So Pakistan's latest coup isn't anything...
  • Warrior's Rewards

    Gen. Wesley Clark, supreme Allied Commander in Europe, waged and won NATO's campaign for Kosovo without losing a single soldier in action. For the U.S. military, the victory was uniquely--historically--bloodless. Last week Clark learned it was also thankless.In a midnight call from Washington, Clark was told he'd be relieved of his command at NATO next April, a few months earlier than he'd anticipated. The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Gen. Hugh Shelton, presented the decision as a simple matter of giving the post to another deserving officer. Clark, who got the call in the middle of a quick trip to the Baltic republics, was caught off balance. He'd seen Shelton in the United States just the week before. Not a word had been breathed of his replacement. According to one source privy to the conversation, Clark told Shelton the move would be read as a vote of no-confidence in his leadership.Shelton, brisk and businesslike, said there was no way around it. His replacement--Air...
  • Nato's Game Of Chicken

    It was billed as the biggest, bloodiest strike of the war. On June 7, U.S. B-52s dropped several cluster bombs on Yugoslav forces at Mount Pastrik, a strategic battlefield on the Kosovo-Albanian border. The assault, one of the final salvos in a 78-day campaign in which 37,200 air sorties had hammered Yugoslavia, came as Slobodan Milosevic seemed to be stalling on a peace pact he had signed a few days before. At the time, NATO claimed that several hundred Serb soldiers were slaughtered on Mount Pastrik as Milosevic's forces massed to fend off the attacking Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). The raid on the mountain was said to be the final blow to the tottering Serb tyrant; two days later he directed his generals to comply with the alliance's schedule for a Serb withdrawal from Kosovo. The world was left with the image of NATO's overwhelming might, of a dictator and his army quaking--and suffering thousands of casualties during the war, compared with none for NATO forces. Washington began...
  • A Military Myth

    The last time someone tried to invade their country, the Yugoslavs fought them to a standstill, tying up dozens of Nazi divisions for the duration of World War II. After the war and the break with Stalin, Josip Broz Tito trained his army in partisan tactics to wage a guerrilla-style war against a superior invading force. It is this heritage that makes Yugoslavia such a tough opponent in a ground war. Or so the Yugoslavs want to believe. Like many self-glorifying military traditions, this one is mostly myth. If NATO invades Yugoslavia on the ground, it will face an army led by demoralized officers, manned largely by reluctant short-term conscripts and trained in static Soviet-style tactics. As Tito's federation broke up in the early '90s, Yugoslavia's Army was beaten by the much smaller Croatian Army. Against NATO, the Yugoslavs wouldn't stand a chance on a conventional battlefield, and whatever partisan fighting skills they still possess aren't enough to guarantee Slobodan Milosevic...
  • Why Troops Take Time

    As the air war in Kosovo grinds on, the inevitable question keeps coming up: why not send in ground troops to stop Slobodan Milosevic's brutality against ethnic Albanians? Last week several members of Congress came out in favor of troops, arguing that calling up America's superior armed forces to crush the Yugoslav Army could quickly end the conflict. It might not be that easy . Since last summer, NATO and Pentagon war planners have been grappling with a logistical nightmare: how to rapidly transport the thousands of soldiers and millions of pounds of equipment that would be required to get the job done.In reality, there would be nothing quick about a military buildup in Kosovo. It could take months of preparation before the first soldier ever hit the ground there. Why such a long lead time? A U.S. armored division is arguably the most lethal fighting force in history. But it is not small, or easy to move around. Technological advancements have not changed an ancient fact of war:...
  • How We Stumbled Into War

    Nearly two weeks before bombs and cruise missiles began to blast Yugoslavia, Bill Clinton's top advisers thought they had Slobodan Milosevic in a corner. On Saturday, March 13, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, national-security adviser Sandy Berger, Defense Secretary William Cohen and Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Gen. Hugh Shelton were in the Situation Room, the wood-paneled, basement bunker in the White House. In two days, at talks in Paris, the Kosovar Albanians would sign on to an 80-page plan to stop the fighting in Kosovo and restore a measure of autonomy to the breakaway province. Now it was up to Milosevic: sign or be bombed. If he resisted, he would be alone in his defiance, facing the full might of NATO. Many believed that, at worst, he would negotiate after smelling the cordite from a few cruise missiles and bombs.Then, over a secure speakerphone, came the scratchy voice of Christopher Hill, the ambassador to Macedonia. He had been the point man in dealing with...
  • Spy-For-Spy Justice

    The mystery of the Chinese prisoner begins with his name. His Shanghai family is celebrated for its resistance to Japan, and he was raised on the run by a legendary communist general who gave him his nom de guerre, Hua Di. To this day Hua sees himself as a patriot. He became a father of the Chinese missile program but fell afoul of the leadership for signing a protest petition in the volatile spring of 1989. Hua found a safe haven at Stanford University for nearly a decade before securing what he thought was safe passage home early last year, only to be arrested. Now, friends and diplomats say, Hua is about to be put on trial for revealing "state secrets" while in exile.Hua could face life in prison as a traitor. But what worries his friends most is that his trial may come only weeks after the United States fired a Taiwan-born Los Alamos scientist for balking at an FBI probe into whether he passed nuclear-warhead secrets to Beijing. Fearing that Hua might be sacrificed in a game of...
  • 'The Penetration Is Total'

    The news was worse than the CIA had imagined. Last week, in response to recent reports that China may have stolen nuclear secrets from Los Alamos and other U.S. weapons labs, President Clinton ordered a preliminary "damage assessment" to determine just how much Beijing knows about the American nuclear program. CIA analysts had already pulled together intelligence data gleaned from U.S. espionage against China and now began poring through it for clues. It wasn't easy. The material was rich in detail: it included years' worth of communications intercepts and revelations from a 1995 Chinese defector who worked on the Chinese nuclear program and spilled to his U.S. handlers. But most of the data had been languishing unread in intelligence-agency computers--for years. Some hadn't even been translated from Chinese.NEWSWEEK has learned that when the CIA showed the material to a team of top nuclear-weapons experts, they "practically fainted." Chinese scientists routinely used phrases,...
  • Making A Symbol Of Terror

    Our guest has gone missing,'' read the Feb. 13 message from the Taliban, the Islamic fundamentalists who rule Afghanistan. ""We did not order him to leave; we do not know where he has gone.'' And so was added one more mystery to the life of Osama bin Laden, a devout Muslim from one of the richest families in Saudi Arabia, a talented civil engineer, an agronomist, a brave war hero. And the world's most-wanted man. In a federal indictment in New York last November, bin Laden, with ""others known and unknown,'' was charged with bombing the American embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam last August--incidents that killed more than 220 people. Two weeks after the bombings, 80 cruise missiles launched from seven American warships hit bin Laden's camps in Afghanistan, and an alleged chemical-weapons factory of his in Sudan; the strike was the largest military action ever taken by a state against a private individual. Bin Laden survived. And in the teeming cities of the Islamic world,...
  • The New Star Wars

    THERE WAS A TIME WHEN RONALD Reagan's opponents lampooned his vision of a space shield against incoming nukes as the raving of a Hollywood madman. But today, 16 years after Reagan's famous "Star Wars" speech, and a decade since the fall of Moscow's "evil empire," the Clinton administration is pushing ahead with the next generation of antimissile missiles. Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative has been renamed the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, and his dreams brought down to earth. In place of space lasers and launchers that would protect all of America "the way a roof protects a family from rain," as Reagan put it, Clinton plans land- and sea-based rockets to defend pockets of American troops and allies overseas. Like other Hollywood sequels, this one has a much bigger budget than the original--and a new Asian villain. Last month Clinton more than doubled ballistic-missile defense spending to a record $10 billion this year--citing in particular the growing missile threat...
  • Sand In Our Eyes

    THERE WAS DEFENSE SECRETARY William Cohen last week, giving another hair-raising briefing about chemical and biological weapons. Saddam Hussein has stored up enough VX nerve agent, Cohen warned, ""to kill every man, woman and child on the face of the earth.'' The soft-spoken former senator from Maine, who has emerged from the current showdown with Iraq as the Clinton administration's Dr. Doom, urgently demanded that U.N. arms inspectors be given ""unfettered opportunity'' to search any place Saddam might be hiding weapons of mass destruction--WMD, in U.N. jargon. ...
  • Rockets

    THE BEST-KNOWN EQUATION of the 20th century is E = mc(sup 2), Einstein's statement linking energy, matter and the speed of light. But another formula V = c log(sub e (sup M(sub i)/M(sub f)--has had at least as much impact on modern life. That's the equation relating the speed of a rocket to its other key characteristics: its weight and the efficiency of its motor. If you can get V up to 15,000 miles per hour, you can hold a missile in suborbital flight long enough to hit a city halfway round the world. Get V up to 17,000 mph, and you can put a satellite into orbit. And if V goes to 25,000 mph, you can break free of Earth's gravitational pull and fly to the moon.The age of the space rocket began on Oct. 3, 1942, on a small Baltic island off the north coast of Germany, when the Nazis' Peenemunde project conducted the first successful test of its A-4, later known to the world as the V-2. Riding a fiery column of burning gas, the operational V-2 scraped the underside of space, achieving...
  • Tomorrow's New Face Of Battle

    There is not one compelling reason to buy a single additional bomber, submarine or tank today, save the preservation of the industrial base. Yet even this is a dubious cause.IN THE CORRIDORS OF THE PENTAGON, LT. COL. Ralph Peters is known as one of the most intellectually gifted American soldiers of his generation. His argument, spelled out in a dozen essays that circulate like samizdat among army colleagues and defense buffs, is that the military is buying the wrong weapons to counter the wrong challenges. Now that the cold war is over, three simultaneous revolutions are underway in the armed forces: new missions, new expectations and new weapons. Under the circumstances, it's no surprise that the navy and air force are developing radically new weapons to use at sea and in the air. But if Peters is right, over the next 15 to 20 years even the earthbound army will have to reinvent itself.During the cold war, U.S. ground forces were configured, above all else, to stop the Soviet...
  • The Hunt For His Secret Weapons

    THE IMAGES, RAW AND GRUESOME, were a crucial piece of the puzzle. In the summer of 1995, the United Nations Special Committee (UNSCOM) inspectors scouring Iraq for Saddam Hussein's elusive weapons arsenal received a rare tip: visit a chicken farm west of Baghdad. There the team found videotapes of experiments Iraqi weapons scientists had performed on live animals. Dogs and monkeys, donkeys and sheep, their bodies pocked with open sores, were shown dying agonizing deaths after exposure to lethal bioagents. The tapes provided undeniable evidence of what investigators had long suspected: that Saddam had succeeded in producing an array of deadly biological weapons. ...