Coldblooded Justice

Arkan used to brag that he would never go to the U.N. tribunal at The Hague. Indicted as a war criminal in 1997, he'd recently taken precautions, changing homes every few nights in the posh Belgrade neighborhood he shared with other Serb luminaries and traveling with bodyguards in an armored jeep. But he wasn't running from the tribunal; no, the enemies he most feared were local. And, as Arkan and his entourage finished dinner at the Rotisserie French restaurant inside Belgrade's Hotel Intercontinental around 5 p.m. last Saturday, they apparently caught up with him. An unknown number of gunmen sprayed the place with Heckler & Koch submachine guns, the Belgrade underworld's weapon of choice. Arkan caught a slug in the eye--among three head wounds--and was DOA at the city's Emergency Hospital, as were two of his own heavies.The list of people who wanted Arkan dead is long. A career criminal--he got his start as a hit man for the Yugoslav communists--Arkan ruthlessly built a...

Where Is The Next Chernobyl?

Visitors to Sosnovy-Bor, a distant suburb of St. Petersburg, can't say they aren't warned. The town hall boasts a digital Geiger counter, displaying local radiation levels in large red letters. That's because Sosnovy-Bor's only industry is the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (LNPP), with its four massive reactors. When NEWSWEEK visited the plant early this year, it looked like an abandoned construction site. Rusting cranes loomed like mutant insects over piles of building materials, seemingly abandoned. They are supposed to be used to revamp the plant's safety systems, an overhaul originally scheduled for completion by the end of the year. But that has been postponed until 2001. "If the ruble crisis goes on," says spokesman Karl Rendel, "it seems pretty clear it won't be done even by then." The LNPP is a Chernobyl-type power station--only much more dangerous.If Chernobyl had happened here, many of the 4 million people of St. Petersburg would have been hit with a massive dose of...

War:E-Zone Combat

If war is the continuation of politics by other means, in von Clausewitz's classic phrase, then the Internet is increasingly becoming the continuation of war by other means. NATO's Kosovo campaign ended with Serbia's capitulation last June, but Serb-Kovosar animosities live on in cyberspace. Members of every ethnic group in the Balkans can find a welter of Web sites and newsgroups keeping their favorite conflicts alive. Programs called list servers pump out propaganda broadsides, recycle news dispatches and transmit full texts of official news conferences. Chat rooms offer forums for people who seem to like nothing better than to type invective at one another. And while the Balkan conflict seems to inspire the worst of the e-combat, wars big and small elsewhere in the world are also being fought via the Internet. In this sort of combat, at least, no one ends up dead.Cyberwar can be deadly serious, though. During the war in Kosovo, hackers and spammers for the first time got involved...

Learning The Killing Game

It was a feel-good scene in post-war Kosovo. British NATO troops hosted a barbecue to celebrate fixing up the Our Happiness Kindergarten in Pristina. Ethnic Albanian children aged 4 to 7 joined hands and sang, in English, "I'm a free, free child in this free, free world." The new ethnic Albanian headmistress, Afudita Mulla, looked on approvingly. "We must teach children not to hate anyone," she said. So when classes opened last week, for the first time in a decade there were no longer separate entrances and walls down the middle of the halls to keep Albanians and Serbs apart. "The doors," said Mulla, "are open for everybody."Yet not a single Serb came through those doors to register a child, even though the shabby apartment blocks that surround Our Happiness were full of Serbs and their children before the summer. "Some went on their own, and some we forced out," bragged a 7-year-old Albanian girl. Then 9-year-old Laurant, a serious-faced redhead, pulled a gunmetal-gray automatic...

The Children Who Love To Hate

It was a feel-good scene in post-war Kosovo. British NATO troops had just finished fixing up the Our Happiness Kindergarten in Pristina. Soldiers of the 7th Signals Regiment put on a barbecue. Ethnic Albanian children ages 4 to 7 joined hands and sang, in English, "I'm a free, free child in this free, free world." The headmistress, Afudita Mulla, looked on approvingly. An ethnic Albanian fired from her job at the school a decade ago as Kosovo began its spiral into ethnic strife, Mulla is clear about her goals: "We must teach children not to hate anyone." So when classes open this week, there will no longer be separate playgrounds or separate entrances for Albanians and Serbs. "The doors," said Mulla, "are open for everybody."And yet not a single Serb has come through those doors to register a child. Partly that's because there are precious few Serbs left anywhere in Kosovo. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees puts the total number of Serbs still in Kosovo at 50,000,...

’Daddy, They’Re Killing Us’

When the blast of the exploding hand grenade stopped echoing inside her head, Vjollca Berisha's first sensation was of a slimy liquid seeping around her as she lay on the floor of the little pizzeria. "I thought they were dousing gasoline on us," she recalled later, "but it was everyone's blood." She took stock of her three children. No sign of Dafina, the 16-year-old girl. She saw Drilon, 13, lift his head, "so I knew he was OK. I said, 'Mosie, are you still alive?' "Her 8-year-old boy, Gramos, said yes. With about 50 other women and children, most of them members of the extended Berisha family, they had vainly tried to escape marauding Serb gunmen last March by hiding under the tables of the Kalabria Restaurant, at a shopping center in Suva Reka, a small town in southern Kosovo. Now the Serbs were closing in for the kill, forming a semicircle just outside the restaurant's shattered glass doors and window, their AK-47s pointed low. Watching from a nearby building, a neighbor heard...

Rape And Aftermath

Serb police found only women and children when they took over the western Kosovo village of Dragacin in late April. All the men had fled or joined the Kosovo Liberation Army. So the Serbs crammed the 150 women, plus their children, into three houses. At night the captors would come and shine flashlights in the women's faces, discussing who was pretty and selecting a few to take away. Hours later the chosen women would return. Nothing had happened, they said; the Serbs had only wanted them to serve coffee. Mothers even got chocolate for their kids.So "Anita" (not her real name) wasn't too worried the night she was picked--at first. The Serbs didn't want coffee. One policeman raped her while four others sexually abused her. After they finished, they handed her some candy. She threw it away. Back at the house she told the other women what had happened. "I said, 'Why didn't you tell us?' But they all said they just made coffee."She was glad to learn she wasn't pregnant. The unmarried 20...

In Kosovo, Fear And Hunger

The men never venture out of their shuttered homes, for fear of being summarily executed. Women know they could be raped. So ethnic Albanians who have not been routed from their homes in Kosovo send children out to the few food stores that are still open or to stand in bread lines. There is little on sale in the shops. And many merchants will sell only to Serbs. "If you want to buy bread, ask Clinton," refugees say they were told. One said he had bought a loaf of bread and as soon as he left the store, a policeman grabbed it and said, "Go to Albania if you want bread."Albanians trapped inside Kosovo now face an insidious new enemy: hunger. "We figure now there are some 820,000 internally displaced people inside Kosovo, many, if not most, corralled into pockets by Serb security forces, largely cut off from any sources of food or supplies," said the NATO military chief, Wesley Clark. Refugees who crossed into Albania last week gave now familiar, but still terrifying, accounts of...

Vengeance Of A Victim Race

There's a common Serb expression that could be the national motto--"Well, at least one of my neighbor's cows is dead.'' It's heard often these days, in this context: NATO may be bombing us and methodically destroying our bridges, our Army, our fuel supplies, our ministries. Our economy is ruined. We're forever shunned by Europe. Our only friends are the Iraqis, the Chinese, the Greeks, the Russians. But at least we put it to the Albanians. Their cows are all dead.The Serbs didn't need to load Kosovars into boxcars to look bad. This is the nation that invented the term ''ethnic cleansing''--as a wartime boast in 1991 when they were kicking Croats out of Croatia. In Belgrade, the wedding of a war criminal was the social occasion of 1995; even Orthodox bishops attended. Now, as the bombs fall, all norms of civilized behavior seem to have disappeared. On TV Palma, a commercial network, station manager Miodrag Vukovic lets loose with a torrent of gutter invective about Bill Clinton's sex...

Death March

The sun was up, but it had not yet crested the steep, mist-shrouded mountains. In the little valley that leads from the Buhoma Gate of the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest National Park in southwestern Uganda, visitors were preparing for hikes that would put them face to face with rare mountain gorillas. American tour guide Mark Ross was up at 7 a.m., but his clients, four executives from Oregon's Intel Corp., were still in their comfortable tents at the pricey Abercrombie & Kent Gorilla Camp. None of them would get to see the animals. "There was a crack, and at first I thought it was a tree falling, but it was a rifle shot," Ross later recalled. "It must have been a signal shot. A hundred fifty soldiers poured over the ridge into the valley, and there was firing everywhere for the next four or five minutes. It was incredibly fast."Ross's first instinct was to protect his clients. He told them to stay put, then ran down a hill toward the park headquarters, the attackers' first target....

Focusing On The Fiat

FROM THE FIRST HOURS AFTER THE CRASH THAT KILLED Princess Diana, Dodi Fayed and driver Henri Paul, investigators focused on the paparazzi. Nine photographers and a motorcyclist were charged with involuntary homicide and failure to render assistance at the scene of an accident. Now it appears they may be guilty of nothing more than being obnoxious. NEWSWEEK has learned that the investigating judge has told the attorneys for at least two of the paparazzi that once the inquiry is completed he expects the charges to be dropped. While a preliminary check of phone records indicated that none of the paparazzi had called the Paris emergency number for help after the accident, it turns out that one photog did dial an alternate number. Then he shouted to the others that he'd called, so they wouldn't clog police lines. As for the involuntary-homicide charges, certainly the photographers were chasing the Mercedes, but none of the witnesses saw them come close enough to interfere directly with...

The Diana File

THE SIX-INCH-THICK DOSSIER compiled by the Prefecture of Police in Paris is labeled simply ""Accident Mortel de la Circulation Date 31/8/97 Heure 00h30.'' The file name is dry, but its contents are provocative. Nestled among sheets of police reports, carefully sketched diagrams and statements from witnesses are photographs of Diana in the wreckage of the Mercedes. Taken by a paparazzo, Diana, eyes open, appears conscious and unhurt; there is no sign of blood. Appearances aside, Diana was hurt--badly hurt. And less than four hours later, she was dead.Six weeks after the crash the world still wonders what, exactly, happened that night. With painstaking detail, the French police have put together a file that answers many of those questions. The dossier and interviews with those on the scene of the accident reveal surprising new details about the crash that on Aug. 31 killed Diana, her lover Dodi Fayed and driver Henri Paul, and seriously injured bodyguard Trevor Rees-Jones.The file...

Serbs: 'We Will Kill You'

IT LOOKED MORE LIKE THE WEST Bank than Bosnia near the northern border town of Brcko last week. Rock-throwing youths hid their faces under black balaclavas and charged U.S. troops in gas masks. Older Serbs used bottles and clubs to smash windshields of Humvees pulling out of the U.S. Army's Camp McGovern. Foreign journalists were beaten in the streets, and U.N. relief workers scrambled into hiding. U.S. Army Blackhawk helicopters fired tear gas into crowds of angry Serbs wielding axes, clubs and iron bars. Demonstrators taunted the GIs in broken English: ""You will see who are the Serbs. We will kill you all.'' ...

North Versus South

THE FISHERMEN OF VLORE ARE FISHing with hand grenades these days. There's precious little food in the Albanian port, now that anti-government protests have turned into something like a civil war between north and south. Roving gangs of gunmen have looted most stores in the southern town. But the outdoor market is full of fish. After chasing out government forces on Feb. 28, rioters seized a huge weapons cache in the military barracks. Ordinary citizens, as well as ordinary criminals, are now heavily armed. As for the fishermen, blam! Toss one grenade into the sea, and the explosion brings a lot of dead fish to the surface. ...

All In The Family

FATHER WAS HAVING A BAD week. After losing local government elections in major Serbian cities, Slobodan Milosevic overturned them, pushing thou- sands of demonstrators into the streets. Mother wasn't much help. Mira Markovic, Slobo's wife and an unrepentant communist, saw her own political party trounced. Meanwhile, her much read diary, published in the magazine Duga, hinted broadly that her husband had been having an affair with a Serbian TV anchorwoman two years ago. "I heard that some people didn't know who I meant the first time I wrote about this," she said, and so she repeated the story. And then there are the two kids: Marko, the winless race-car driver, and Marija, the pistol-packing disco queen who tells fortunes by reading coffee grinds. "This is really the dictatorship of the Addams Family," says Mirjana Bobic-Mojsilovic, a prominent journalist. "Except they're not as funny. For us Serbs, it's always black humor." ...

The Plague That Wasn't

CYRIL LAHANA DIDN'T GET TO KISS HIS dying wife, Marilyn, goodbye last week. He squeezed her toe instead, to let her know he was there. She lay in a Johannesburg hospital, bleeding to death from the deadly African virus Ebola, infected by a doctor who'd been medevaced from the jungles of Gabon into the clinic where she worked as a nurse. The doctor turned out to be one of the 20 percent of Ebola victims who survive; Marilyn was not. "A lot of our relations said they were too frightened of us to even come to the funeral," Cyril said. "I don't believe it. It's not an airborne disease; you don't get it by shaking hands." By the time the braver mourners gathered for Marilyn's memorial service last Friday, the virus's 21-day incubation period had elapsed. No one else had caught it. ...

The Islamic Nightmare

THE MULLAHS WHO TOOK OVER last week in Kabul, the conquered capital of Afghanistan, made Iran's ayatollahs look like Western playboys. The fundamentalist Taliban movement issued decree after decree through its six-member ruling council, the Shura. Television stations and movie theaters were shut down, and music was banned from the radio. Kabul's 1 million people were ordered to pray five times a day--including two visits to the local mosque, where attendance would be taken. Criminals were threatened with beatings, mutilation and death. Men were given 45 days to grow proper Muslim beards--which are left untrimmed--and were told to shed their Western clothes in favor of traditional Afghan dress. ...

Starting Over?

EMPTY BUSES MAY PROVE TO BE the symbol of what didn't happen in the Bosnian elections last week. The Western allies had hired thousands of them to take refugees back to their home villages to vote on Saturday. The West's logic: for Bosnia to become a multiethnic state again, with Muslims, Croats and Serbs living side by side, the voters would have to choose an ethnic mix of representatives, too. That meant taking people back to places where they'd been ""ethnically cleansed''--that is, slaughtered and forced out--during 3i years of war. So the buses were scheduled, some even for every half hour, to shuttle voters all over the desecrated Bosnian map. The passengers were pitifully few. Election organizers had predicted that as many as 120,000 people would make such pilgrimages. Only 20,000 actually did, either from fear or from lack of faith that the elections could really matter in their lives. By midday in the chunk of Bosnia guarded by Americans, a mere 17 Muslims had dared venture...

One Star, Two Nets

CHRISTIANE AMANPOUR HAD WHAT she calls ""a weird feeling of deja vu'' as she flew into Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, from her base in Paris last week. Amanpour, dispatched by CNN to report on the terror bombing at an American housing complex, had covered the beginning of the gulf war from Dhahran six years ago. ""And here I am coming back again,'' she says in her distinctive British accent. ""It's almost like all the same people all over again.'' CNN is even encamped in the same hotel it used during the gulf war. But back then Amanpour was an unknown on her first foreign reporting assignment. Perhaps her greatest distinction was her status as one of ""the Three Holy News Babes,'' as she and her all-female crew were jokingly known. This time around, it's different. The phones in the CNN suite are ringing off the hook. Reporters are calling -- and they want to interview Amanpour.Between visits to Dhahran, Amanpour, 38, has compiled a collection of passport stamps and broadcasting awards that...

A Monster On The Loose

ONLY 13 MILES OF TWISTING mountain road separate their headquarters. At the top of the mountain, holed up in a warren of bunkers, is Gen. Ratko Mladic, the Bosnian Serb military commander, a tough-talking bantam of a man who is the most wanted of Bosnia's alleged war criminals. At the bottom of the mountain is Camp Lisa, home to the equally tough-talking Col. John Batiste, a brigade commander in the U.S. First Armored Division. The two men probably hope they never meet on a dark mountain road. Mladic is a fugitive from international justice, having been indicted twice by the International War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague. Batiste, as a leader of NATO's Implementation Force (IFOR) under the Dayton peace agreement, is supposed to arrest men like him on sight. So does Batiste expect to run into Mladic or any of the 45 other indicted Bosnian Serbs? "Only if they're stupid," he says. ...

Death Of A Village

ZINA HASANOVIC TAKES OUT her most treasured possession, a picture of her husband, Haris. She smiles down at her year-old daughter, Lejla. "See, it's Papa. Give him a kiss," she says. The toddler grabs the photograph, kisses it and proudly says, "Papa." Her grandmother weeps in the corner of their one-room home, which is shared by eight refugees from the Muslim village of Lehovici, outside Srebrenica. The women are teaching Lejla to say "Father" and "Uncle" and "Brother," despite the fact that most of her male relatives are almost certainly dead. ...

Getting The Job Done

NATO HAS A LOT TO boast about in Bosnia in the two weeks since D-Day, or Deployment Day, as the troops refer to the Dee. 20 handover of power from the United Nations to NATO's IFOR (Implementation Force). By the weekend, NATO troops had either shut down or knocked down every military roadblock in two thirds of the country. For the first time, Muslim civilians could travel from Sarajevo to the Gorazde enclave across Serb territory. The drive from Zagreb to Sarajevo, which once took two days and many prayers, was reduced to four hours. NATO soldiers occupied a key dam to prevent Croat troops from sabotaging it. Serbs and Muslims helped IFOR map their minefields. The belligerents, renamed in NATO-speak as the FWFs (Former Warring Factions), sat down to hash out their withdrawals from the confrontation lines, due in two weeks. One British veteran of the Bosnian conflict came away from one such meeting amazed: "They always try to outnice each other." ...

The Crimes Of Bosnia

A RECENT HUDDLE BEtween U.S. peace negotiator Richard Holbrooke and Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic illustrated a key problem of holding Balkans war-crimes trials. At one point in the meeting, Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic complained he couldn't attend the upcoming peace talks in Dayton, Ohio, because of his indictment by the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia as a war criminal. "Mr. Karadzic," one of the American negotiators deadpanned, "you're welcome to come to the United States. And if you do, we'll arrest you." ...

'Virtual Peace' In Sarajevo

When Richard Holbrooke emerged from his armored Chevrolet in front of Sarajevo's Presidency building last week, passersby applauded. A week had just gone by without so much as a sniping victim or a mortar explosion. Souvenir stalls in the Old Town's market opened up for the first time in the war, and night clubbers flouted the city's curfew. A "Pax Americana," Munevera Bratnik called it as she took her two toddlers out in a stroller. Cars long in storage emerged to create unprecedented traffic jams. One optimistic entrepreneur, inspired by the reopening of the airport to U.N. flights, even started a travel agency. But the siege of Bosnia was not yet over. ...

Learning About The Serbs-As A Captive

I arrived in Bosnian serb territory at the invitation of Sonja Karadzic, a would-be pop singer who runs the press office for her dad, the president. NATO bombers had been working the Bosnian skies all day, and reconnaissance jets could be heard far overhead. "There's a small problem," a military policeman said, scowling at my American passport and un-shouldering his short-barreled machine gun. "Come this way." Once we were out of sight of possible witnesses, he tied a smelly handkerchief across my eyes and led me down the road. I peeked, keeping my eyes on that gun. I reminded myself that Bosnian Serbs like to take Western hostages when threatened, but so far they hadn't killed any. ...

A Death March In The Mountains

At a crossroads in the mountains, Sabaheta Bacirovic saw 500 men on their knees. They were Muslim prisoners. Their arms were tied behind their heads, and their Serbian captors forced them to "march" by shuffling along on their knees. The Serbs taunted Mrs. Bacirovic and the women traveling with her, who had been driven out of Srebrenica when the Muslim enclave fell on July 11. "There are your husbands," she recalled them saying. "There is your army. We will kill them all."Mrs. Bacirovic anxiously scanned the prisoners for a glimpse of her husband, but she didn't see him. "I have little hope left," she said last week at a refugee camp in Tuzla. "Too much time has gone by." Other women who rode the trail of tears out of Srebrenica had seen heaps of dead men, their throats slit, piled up beside the roads.Survivors called it the Srebrenica Death March. As the Muslim enclave was falling, remnants of the defending Bosnian army organized all the men of draft age- somewhere between 12,000...

The Game Of Survival

In Sarajevo, U.N. Warehouses are nearly empty, but people don't seem very hungry. There's no electricity, but residents unhook their car batteries at night to run their television sets. In between snatches of locally dubbed CNN and subtitled re-runs of Schwarzenegger and Van Damme movies, they might catch a commercial on TV Bill, such as the one for At-Mahir Pizza: "For the best pizza in town, delivered in 15 minutes, call 531-532." Call? No problem; the government has installed a satellite earth station, rumored to be hidden in a roofless building somewhere, so phone service is excellent within Sarajevo-and even to "free Bosnia" outside the Serb siege lines. At-Mahir's uses bullet-pocked, wind-shield-shattered cars to deliver pizzas that arrive piping hot, in Croatian-made cardboard pizza cartons, smuggled through the tunnel under the city's airport.After years of futilely waiting for the West to rescue them, Sarajevans have learned to depend on themselves. They have little choice:...

'What Am I Doing Here?'

Canadian Army Medics on a good-will mission had just picked up an X-ray machine from a hospital on the Serb side of the line to take back to their headquarters for repair. Minutes later, Serb artillery fired seven shells into the Canadian camp at the shattered Sarajevo suburb of Visoko. A hut was fiddled with shrapnel, and two Grizzly armored cars were damaged. Meanwhile, on the Serb side, Capt. Serge Harvey, commander of the Canadians' Company A, was sharing a congenial drink of slivovitz with the Serb commander. The telephone rang, and Harvey's host apologetically announced that the Serbs were taking 53 Canadians hostage. On the Bosnian government side of the line, things weren't much better. At a checkpoint, the crew of a Canadian light tank was asked to show ID cards. When the Canadians opened the hatches, the Bosnians put guns in their faces and stole their grenades--and their personal cameras.It was a bad week, but not an unusual one for the much-abused U.N. troops of Canada's...

Dealing With The Devil

The last American Ambassador to parley with Slobodan Milosevic found him "almost totally dominated by his dark side." Even in closed-door meetings with diplomats, the Serbian president was a pathological liar, Warren Zimmermann writes in the current issue of Foreign Affairs. He destroyed Yugoslavia to build a Greater Serbia-not because the onetime communist ideologue had turned nationalist, but because he craved power. Milosevic was never "moved by an individual case of human suffering," says Zimmermann, who was U.S. ambassador in Belgrade at the start of the Balkan war and was recalled by Washington in protest in 1992. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic comes off no better. Zimmermann compares him to "a monster from another generation, Heinrich Himmler." ...

'Every Tree Is A Fortress'

IN THE HIGH CAUCASUS, TEAMS OF AGILE Chechens scale the sheer cliff faces. They are practicing for a war that is just around the next peak. Already, they see Russian Sukhoi-24 jet bombers swooping up their valleys, bombing hamlets and bridges and rocketing cars on the roads. Preliminary skirmishes are underway: in the Caucasian foothills, bear hunters from the village of Goy-chu tracked down a company of elite Russian paratroopers, beat them into submission and turned the survivors over to the Chechen leaders in Grozny. And on the agricultural plain around Grozny, Chechen fighters are preparing for a long resistance. They have laid "dragon's teeth" -- crossed iron girders designed to trap Russian armor -- in the river fords. They have mined the highway bridges on the edges of the capital, with lookouts ready to blow them. They have set up self-defense plans in every village and established an intelligence network. Even as the Chechen capital seems about to fall to the Russians, the...

'These People Can Never Be Pacified'

Dozens of dead Russian soldiers lay heaped behind the pockmarked presidential palace. Occasionally a stray dog slippedup, worried at a body and made off with an entrail. Many of the dead had been wounded and left to die by a demoralized and confused army -- four Russian divisions that seemed incapable of subduing a republic the size of Connecticut. The job of removing the Russian dead fell to the Chechen fighters who had held the nerve center of their resistance despite a four-week Russian offensive. "In the days of the Soviet Union, Russia was a great power and all its nations were subjugated without any problem," said Askambek Chatuyev, a Chechen lieutenant. "Now it's nothing." ...

'We'll Hunt You Down Like A Dog.'

IT WAS A DOG'S LIFE FOR HAITI'S DICTAtors last week. American tanks turned their cannons on FRAPH, the paramilitary thugs who did most of the regime's dirty work, forcing them to surrender without a shot. Regional military garrisons continued to desert, and policemen who got in the way found themselves cuffed by the GIs. Crowds cheered every move. U.S. Lt. Gen. Henry Hugh Shekon made a pointed visit to FRAPH leader Emmanuel (Toto) Constant,. whose group had often .threatened to kill Aristide. Change your tune, the general told him, or "we'll hunt you down like a dog," Toto promptly gave a press conference disavowing violence and promising to support the return of exiled President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Shelton wasn't fooling around. The Americans built a barbed-wire kennel at their airport headquarters, and penned up 75 of the worst attaches, including four prominent "Ninjas," masked security men for the high command. The despised police chief, Michel Francois, fled to the...

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