Mali has played host to a raft of extremist groups in recent years but people’s reasons for joining are often the same.
James Krause was declared dead after he went missing on a flight from South Africa to Mali, but his family says he is alive.
Amad al-Faqi al-Mahdi was jailed for nine years in 2016 after pleading guilty to war crimes.
McGowan was kidnapped along with a Swede and Dutch national, both of whom have already been released.
The group kidnapped the Swedish national from Timbuktu in 2011.
The new French president has criticized France's colonial legacy in Africa, but early signs suggest he may not follow through by pulling out.
Italian authorities told Newsweek that while there are episodes of suicide among asylum seekers, this appears to be the first to have occurred in such a public place.
Al-Qaeda affiliates are active in the region.
Some of the groups were involved in the 2012 northern Mali uprising.
A 2015 peace deal is aimed at resolving the causes of a 2012 revolution in northern Mali.
French troops are deployed across North and West Africa to tackle militant groups.
Ahmad al-Faqi al-Mahdi led the destruction of nine historic shrines and a 15th-century mosque.
Ahmad al-Faqi al-Mahdi is the first person to enter a guilty plea at the ICC.
The presenter, known as Ras Bath, suggested jihadis are on the front foot against Mali armed forces.
Militants have killed 68 U.N. peacekeepers in Mali in the past three years, but the blue helmets aren’t giving up yet.
Al-Qaeda’s North Africa branch said it did battle with “crusader occupation forces” in northern Mali.
Cultural heritage destruction, like the Sufi mausoleums of Timbuktu, robs peoples of their identity.
Abu al-Nur al-Andalusi had previously encouraged Spanish Muslims to "join the jihad."