Tensions between local and international actors have led to nonstop violence and more than 500,000 deaths, but there are some signs of rehabilitation.
The axis of Russia, Iran and Syria faced attacks from Turkey in Afrin and Western pressure to cease bombing rebels in eastern Ghouta.
One leading Russian senator said, “It would be good if the Americans, along with us, took part in liberating eastern Ghouta from the terrorists.”
After ISIS was mostly defeated in the east, the Syrian military set its sights on rebel-held Idlib, while Turkey targeted U.S.-backed Kurds in Afrin, Aleppo.
Turkey and Syrian rebels have launched a joint operation against Syrian Kurdish forces, putting the U.S. and Russia in a difficult position.
A year after winning Aleppo, the Syrian military and its Russian ally launched a devastating offensive against the last rebel province of Idlib.
Russia used electronic and conventional warfare to take down a baker's dozen drones.
The deadly shelling was a reminder that the city once called "hell" by the U.N. chief was still threatened by violence a year later.
As Russia consolidates its position in Syria and the Middle East as a whole, it's reaching out to rivals and selling them a coveted weapon, the S-400.
Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, his opposition, U.S.-backed Kurdish forces and the Islamic State militant group (ISIS) all recognized Eid al-Adha.
Once a primary recipient of CIA assistance, the Free Syrian Army has since turned on U.S. efforts to battle ISIS using Kurdish militias.
The Syrian military once again faced off in Damascus with jihadist rebels attempting to strengthen the opposition's stance in international peace talks.
Russia, Iran and Turkey said last week they were ready to help broker a peace deal after holding talks in Moscow.
The Syrian army have made rapid gains against insurgents in the past two weeks and look closer than ever to restoring full control over Aleppo.
If the rebels take Jarablus, it would preclude an assault by Kurdish forces who hope to expand their reach.
Amnesty International documented 24 cases of abduction in Aleppo and Idlib governorates.
An opposition representative said the delegation might turn up if their demands were swiftly met, but the chances appeared slim.
The rebels want all sides in Syria's civil war to allow humanitarian access to those in need and cease attacks on civilians.