TRANSITION

ROBERT MCCULLOUGH, 64 As a 19-year-old civil-rights activist in Rock Hill, S.C., McCullough led a group of nine students from Friendship Junior College who chose 30-day prison sentences instead of the $100 fine levied against them for sitting in at a whites-only lunch counter in 1961. The Friendship 9 helped fuel the civil-rights movement in the South by inspiring the activist slogan "Jail, no bail" and encouraging those arrested to serve in prison rather than pay fines to a racist government. McCullough reminded fellow activists that their protests against segregation were not for themselves but "for all of humanity."

MIKE DOUGLAS, 81 In the 21 years "The Mike Douglas Show" aired, the affable entertainer saw it all, featuring pop stars and presidents. TV's warmest host recorded about 6,000 episodes.

JAMES VAN ALLEN, 91 Just months after the U.S.S.R. launched Sputnik, Van Allen won a place in space for America with the success of Explorer 1, the first U.S. satellite to orbit the planet. A longtime professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Iowa, he contributed to the discovery of two radiation belts in Earth's magnetic field, the understanding of which allowed for exploratory expeditions to other planets. Van Allen was a developer and advocate of robotic spacecraft. He remained an active researcher until one month before his death.