These States Have the Most Born-and-Bred Residents

States with the most born-and-bred residents
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In certain corners of the U.S., the only way you'll ever be considered a local is if you were born there. Particularly in rural pockets, where generation after generation stays close to old family farms or businesses, even someone who moved to the area during childhood is often considered a transplant.

Elsewhere, in major metropolitan centers like New York City, it can feel like no one is originally from there. The constant influx of new businesses, college students, and families can transform neighborhoods every few years and certainly decade over decade.

Using the most recent data from the U.S. Census Bureau's 2019 American Community Survey, Stacker ranked every U.S. state and Washington D.C. based on the percentage of the total population that was born in that state of residence.

Results on this list might surprise some readers. Scroll through Stacker's list to see which state has the most loyal natives.

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51. Nevada

- 2019 population: 3,080,156
- Born in state of residence: 839,064 (27.24% of population)
- Born in other US state: 1,575,292 (51.14% of population)
- Born in US territory: 55,148 (1.79% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 610,652 (19.83% of population)

Nevada is the last state on this list, meaning the "Silver State" wins the gold when it comes to people leaving. Nevada is heavily dependent on gaming and tourism, and only 25.91 percent of its residents can say they were born there. Apparently, what happens in Vegas most likely leaves Vegas.

50. Florida

- 2019 population: 21,477,737
- Born in state of residence: 7,688,623 (35.8% of population)
- Born in other US state: 8,423,377 (39.22% of population)
- Born in US territory: 839,309 (3.91% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 4,526,428 (21.07% of population)

Florida comes in second place for having the lowest percentage of born and bred residents. However, with the largest percentage of senior citizens of any state, it would most likely dominate any "best place to retire" list. With record numbers of tourists visiting the state, the economy is seemingly unaffected by Florida natives staying or leaving.

49. Washington D.C.

- 2019 population: 705,749
- Born in state of residence: 262,594 (37.21% of population)
- Born in other US state: 343,198 (48.63% of population)
- Born in US territory: 14,624 (2.07% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 85,333 (12.09% of population)

It should come as no surprise that Washington D.C., the political heart of the country, has such high numbers of transplants living there. Taken as a microcosm of the larger political population, Congress alone brings in 535 congressmen and congresswomen from across the country to live in D.C. Although when it comes to politics, it is better to not be born there: A Washington D.C. native has never become president.

#48. Arizona
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48. Arizona

- 2019 population: 7,278,717
- Born in state of residence: 2,901,217 (39.86% of population)
- Born in other US state: 3,300,876 (45.35% of population)
- Born in US territory: 100,323 (1.38% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 976,301 (13.41% of population)

Home to the Grand Canyon, Arizona is also home to a majority of people who were not born there. Arizona is ranked second in the country for concentrating solar power and fourth in terms of fastest wage growth.

47. New Hampshire

- 2019 population: 1,359,711
- Born in state of residence: 552,277 (40.62% of population)
- Born in other US state: 701,910 (51.62% of population)
- Born in US territory: 18,618 (1.37% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 86,906 (6.39% of population)

New Hampshire is one of nine states with no state income tax. In the last several years, more young people have moved into the state than out of it.

46. Colorado

- 2019 population: 5,758,736
- Born in state of residence: 2,431,490 (42.22% of population)
- Born in other US state: 2,678,077 (46.5% of population)
- Born in US territory: 102,280 (1.78% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 546,889 (9.5% of population)

Home to the country's first commercial cannabis market, Colorado's population is 42 percent Centennial State natives and nearly 47 percent out-of-staters. The state is home to four of the top 10 ranked ski resorts in North America.

#45. Alaska
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45. Alaska

- 2019 population: 731,545
- Born in state of residence: 313,765 (42.89% of population)
- Born in other US state: 341,249 (46.65% of population)
- Born in US territory: 18,153 (2.48% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 58,378 (7.98% of population)

When someone wants to leave Alaska and head to the continental U.S., they either need a cruise ship, an airplane, or a trip through Canada via road. As difficult or as expensive as it might seem to leave, only 42.45 percent of the population was born in Alaska. Known for its oil and fishing exports, another major export of Alaska seems to be its natives.

44. Wyoming

- 2019 population: 578,759
- Born in state of residence: 249,024 (43.03% of population)
- Born in other US state: 308,069 (53.23% of population)
- Born in US territory: 3,897 (0.67% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 17,769 (3.07% of population)

The major industries of Wyoming are mineral extraction and tourism, and the state boasts three national parks. Wyoming sets itself apart from other states with similar industries in that roughly half of the land is government-owned.

43. Delaware

- 2019 population: 973,764
- Born in state of residence: 428,368 (43.99% of population)
- Born in other US state: 428,907 (44.05% of population)
- Born in US territory: 19,219 (1.97% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 97,270 (9.99% of population)

Although Delaware, known as "The First State," was the first state to ratify the U.S. Constitution, it is far from the first state when it comes to retaining its state natives. Delaware does, however, have the closest spread of any state on this list when it comes to its population; 43.2 percent of the population was born there and just a slightly higher 44.99 percent was born out of state.

42. Oregon

- 2019 population: 4,217,737
- Born in state of residence: 1,923,843 (45.61% of population)
- Born in other US state: 1,830,937 (43.41% of population)
- Born in US territory: 52,405 (1.24% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 410,552 (9.73% of population)

As one of only five states that does not have a sales tax and boasting the 11th best economy in the U.S., Oregon certainly "flies with her own wings." The Beaver State is also the last state on this list where the percentage of residents born out of state is greater than the percentage of those born in the state.

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41. Idaho

- 2019 population: 1,787,065
- Born in state of residence: 823,414 (46.08% of population)
- Born in other US state: 839,738 (46.99% of population)
- Born in US territory: 20,801 (1.16% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 103,112 (5.77% of population)

Idaho was the top-performing economy in the U.S. in 2017, largely attributed to Idaho relying heavily on international trade. Just 5.89 percent of the population was born in a foreign country.

40. Washington

- 2019 population: 7,614,893
- Born in state of residence: 3,533,417 (46.4% of population)
- Born in other US state: 2,815,331 (36.97% of population)
- Born in US territory: 133,311 (1.75% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 1,132,834 (14.88% of population)

Washington has been ranked as having the second-best economy in the country, which is not a huge surprise when considering companies like Amazon and Microsoft are based there. It seems Washington might have been too busy giving birth to grunge music to prioritize retaining its state natives.

#39. Maryland
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39. Maryland

- 2019 population: 6,045,680
- Born in state of residence: 2,864,269 (47.38% of population)
- Born in other US state: 2,156,453 (35.67% of population)
- Born in US territory: 95,527 (1.58% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 929,431 (15.37% of population)

Throughout Maryland, 47 percent of the population was also born there. Maryland's economy outperforms the U.S. economy and is one of only 11 states to have a AAA bond rating.

38. Vermont

- 2019 population: 623,989
- Born in state of residence: 304,509 (48.8% of population)
- Born in other US state: 283,397 (45.42% of population)
- Born in US territory: 6,709 (1.08% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 29,374 (4.71% of population)

Vermont is the second top producer of maple syrup in North America, and the top producer of maple syrup in the U.S. Perhaps life in Vermont is just too delicious to leave, with over half of its population having been born there. Two of the state's most famous residents, ice cream makers Ben and Jerry, were not born there.

37. Virginia

- 2019 population: 8,535,519
- Born in state of residence: 4,222,276 (49.47% of population)
- Born in other US state: 3,067,908 (35.94% of population)
- Born in US territory: 161,512 (1.89% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 1,083,823 (12.7% of population)

Virginia may be deep on this list of states retaining born and bred residents, but it is the No. 1 state when it comes to producing U.S. presidents. Eight United States presidents were born in Virginia. Coal is the No. 1 export in Virginia.

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36. New Jersey

- 2019 population: 8,882,190
- Born in state of residence: 4,570,361 (51.46% of population)
- Born in other US state: 2,024,372 (22.79% of population)
- Born in US territory: 212,771 (2.4% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 2,074,686 (23.36% of population)

The Garden State is known for having the highest property taxes in the country. New Jersey boasts strong pharmaceutical, manufacturing, and transportation industries.

35. Hawaii

- 2019 population: 1,415,872
- Born in state of residence: 740,973 (52.33% of population)
- Born in other US state: 353,713 (24.98% of population)
- Born in US territory: 48,174 (3.4% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 273,012 (19.28% of population)

Slightly more than half of Hawaii's population was born there, the majority of whom make their living through the state's tourism and hospitality industries. Some portion of the 25 percent of residents born in other states can be attributed to the large military presence in Hawaii.

34. Montana

- 2019 population: 1,068,778
- Born in state of residence: 571,138 (53.44% of population)
- Born in other US state: 462,848 (43.31% of population)
- Born in US territory: 9,724 (0.91% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 25,068 (2.35% of population)

Montana, affectionately known as "Big Sky Country," relies on agriculture and tourism to keep the economy booming. Montana is incredibly welcoming to bees that call the state their home; the state is the second-largest producer of honey in the nation.

#33. Connecticut
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33. Connecticut

- 2019 population: 3,565,287
- Born in state of residence: 1,917,008 (53.77% of population)
- Born in other US state: 979,738 (27.48% of population)
- Born in US territory: 140,176 (3.93% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 528,365 (14.82% of population)

Almost 15 percent of Connecticut's population was born in a foreign country. The born-and-bred residents make up 54 percent of the population, which can perhaps be attributed to the fact that 13 percent of the U.S. economy is within 200 miles of Connecticut.

32. New Mexico

- 2019 population: 2,096,829
- Born in state of residence: 1,128,247 (53.81% of population)
- Born in other US state: 742,663 (35.42% of population)
- Born in US territory: 24,077 (1.15% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 201,842 (9.63% of population)

The Land of Enchantment currently has a booming film industry thanks to available tax credits. Tourism is also a successful sector for the state.

31. Georgia

- 2019 population: 10,617,423
- Born in state of residence: 5,777,264 (54.41% of population)
- Born in other US state: 3,597,182 (33.88% of population)
- Born in US territory: 151,097 (1.42% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 1,091,880 (10.28% of population)

Georgia produces more pecans and peanuts than any other state. With agriculture as a main industry and Atlanta as the "new hub of the south," there are more reasons to stay than to leave.

30. South Carolina

- 2019 population: 5,148,714
- Born in state of residence: 2,830,772 (54.98% of population)
- Born in other US state: 1,967,181 (38.21% of population)
- Born in US territory: 62,351 (1.21% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 288,410 (5.6% of population)

With a blossoming tourism industry thanks to Charleston, Hilton Head, and Myrtle Beach, South Carolina ranks among the best economies in the U.S. Unfortunately for those economically stable residents, it also finds itself ranked toward the bottom in terms of education.

29. North Carolina

- 2019 population: 10,488,084
- Born in state of residence: 5,868,716 (55.96% of population)
- Born in other US state: 3,610,684 (34.43% of population)
- Born in US territory: 124,053 (1.18% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 884,631 (8.43% of population)

North Carolina's low corporate taxes and low cost of living have attracted many companies to house their headquarters there. Bank of America and LabCorp offer job prospects in the state.

28. California

- 2019 population: 39,512,223
- Born in state of residence: 22,172,075 (56.11% of population)
- Born in other US state: 6,212,915 (15.72% of population)
- Born in US territory: 563,013 (1.42% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 10,564,220 (26.74% of population)

California has the country's largest economy, which would also be the world's fifth-largest economy if it stood alone. Agriculture, Hollywood, and Silicon Valley draw people from out-of-state.

#27. Rhode Island
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27. Rhode Island

- 2019 population: 1,059,361
- Born in state of residence: 600,117 (56.65% of population)
- Born in other US state: 284,047 (26.81% of population)
- Born in US territory: 30,123 (2.84% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 145,074 (13.69% of population)

Rhode Island is the smallest state in the union, but it is big on hope. It is the only state to not vote for the Eighteenth Amendment that began prohibition. Rhode Island regularly ranks high in terms of health care in the country.

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26. Tennessee

- 2019 population: 6,829,174
- Born in state of residence: 4,036,656 (59.11% of population)
- Born in other US state: 2,362,704 (34.6% of population)
- Born in US territory: 56,342 (0.83% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 373,472 (5.47% of population)

Tennessee has figured out a winning recipe for retaining its native population. The state is well-known for ongoing economic growth, a thriving music scene, and good whiskey.

25. Kansas

- 2019 population: 2,913,314
- Born in state of residence: 1,723,235 (59.15% of population)
- Born in other US state: 952,079 (32.68% of population)
- Born in US territory: 29,100 (1% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 208,900 (7.17% of population)

Kansas loyalty just makes sense. The state's cost of living is 8.74 percent lower than the U.S. average and housing costs are 27 percent below the national average.

24. Massachusetts

- 2019 population: 6,892,503
- Born in state of residence: 4,091,791 (59.37% of population)
- Born in other US state: 1,399,052 (20.3% of population)
- Born in US territory: 211,468 (3.07% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 1,190,192 (17.27% of population)

Wicked awesome accents and derogatory driving stereotypes aside, Massachusetts regularly ranks among the best states to live in. More than 60 percent of the population was born in Massachusetts, and the state has in the past been ranked first in the country for education.

Houston
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23. Texas

- 2019 population: 28,995,881
- Born in state of residence: 17,240,037 (59.46% of population)
- Born in other US state: 6,334,762 (21.85% of population)
- Born in US territory: 469,926 (1.62% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 4,951,156 (17.08% of population)

The Lone Star State could also be the Second Star State: It is both the second-biggest state and second-biggest economy in the country. Texas' population is almost 60 percent Texan natives, who are perhaps staying because 102 of the top 1,000 largest companies in the country are based there.

22. Arkansas

- 2019 population: 3,017,804
- Born in state of residence: 1,826,648 (60.53% of population)
- Born in other US state: 1,014,965 (33.63% of population)
- Born in US territory: 21,905 (0.73% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 154,286 (5.11% of population)

Arkansas is the birthplace of Walmart. The largest industry in Arkansas is agriculture where, amazingly, 97 percent of the state's farms are family-owned. To many Arkansas farmers, leaving home would also mean leaving a secure job.

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21. Oklahoma

- 2019 population: 3,956,971
- Born in state of residence: 2,397,439 (60.59% of population)
- Born in other US state: 1,278,470 (32.31% of population)
- Born in US territory: 40,853 (1.03% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 240,209 (6.07% of population)

More than just a popular Rodgers and Hammerstein musical, Oklahoma is one of the top five producers of crude oil and one of the top producers of natural gas in the country. Unfortunately, Oklahoma has also ranked among the country's worst economies.

20. Maine

- 2019 population: 1,344,212
- Born in state of residence: 828,176 (61.61% of population)
- Born in other US state: 449,102 (33.41% of population)
- Born in US territory: 14,522 (1.08% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 52,412 (3.9% of population)

"Maine, the way life should be." Known for producing the majority of the country's lobsters, Mainers are so serious about staying in Maine, there was a 2019 bill introduced to change the state license plate slogan from "Vacationland" to "Staycationland."

19. Utah

- 2019 population: 3,205,958
- Born in state of residence: 1,977,818 (61.69% of population)
- Born in other US state: 921,459 (28.74% of population)
- Born in US territory: 32,106 (1% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 274,575 (8.56% of population)

Utah's industry relies heavily on the tourism that comes along with five national parks, seven national monuments, and one trendy ski town. Utah houses the world headquarters for the Mormon Church and happens to be the most charitable state in the country.

North Dakota
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18. North Dakota

- 2019 population: 762,062
- Born in state of residence: 470,871 (61.79% of population)
- Born in other US state: 253,472 (33.26% of population)
- Born in US territory: 6,581 (0.86% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 31,138 (4.09% of population)

North Dakota ranks among the best states to live in, with good air quality being just one of its allures. This is a pretty good indication that the state has recovered from the 2014 oil boom and subsequent repercussions. Farms and ranches compose roughly 90 percent of the land there.

17. New York

- 2019 population: 19,453,561
- Born in state of residence: 12,271,005 (63.08% of population)
- Born in other US state: 2,315,876 (11.9% of population)
- Born in US territory: 506,389 (2.6% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 4,360,291 (22.41% of population)

The economy of New York State is inextricably linked to the economy of New York City. The Big Apple accounts for 95 percent of the state's population growth and is considered the nation's center of finance, communications, and art. With the cultural and financial pull of New York City, one might assume the residents born elsewhere would account for a larger percentage of the population.

16. South Dakota

- 2019 population: 884,659
- Born in state of residence: 562,899 (63.63% of population)
- Born in other US state: 280,332 (31.69% of population)
- Born in US territory: 5,096 (0.58% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 36,332 (4.11% of population)

With nearly 65 percent of the population of South Dakota being born and bred there, the lands can't be all that bad. South Dakota is home to Mount Rushmore, Crazy Horse Memorial, and Custer State Park.

15. Nebraska

- 2019 population: 1,934,408
- Born in state of residence: 1,251,901 (64.72% of population)
- Born in other US state: 523,993 (27.09% of population)
- Born in US territory: 16,046 (0.83% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 142,468 (7.36% of population)

In what seems to be an attempt at reverse psychology, Nebraska has adopted the new slogan, "Honestly, it's not for everyone." Or perhaps this is just an honest attempt of Nebraska natives, which make up 64.51 percent of the state's population, to keep their home for themselves.

14. Missouri

- 2019 population: 6,137,428
- Born in state of residence: 4,041,520 (65.85% of population)
- Born in other US state: 1,782,536 (29.04% of population)
- Born in US territory: 51,325 (0.84% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 262,047 (4.27% of population)

Though the pronunciation of the state is still up for debate, one thing is certain: Missourians like Missouri. Coming in with the 14th highest percentage of born-and-bred residents, Missouri has also recently been ranked 15th for quality of life.

13. Illinois

- 2019 population: 12,671,821
- Born in state of residence: 8,542,823 (67.42% of population)
- Born in other US state: 2,210,387 (17.44% of population)
- Born in US territory: 152,119 (1.2% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 1,766,492 (13.94% of population)

The U.S. government's 2018 National Climate Assessment warned that in the coming years, Chicago's temperatures will rise in the summer, and the climate will begin to resemble Las Vegas more than present-day Chicago. With nearly 67 percent of the population of Illinois being born and bred there, it appears that this extreme weather does not phase them.

Indiana
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12. Indiana

- 2019 population: 6,732,219
- Born in state of residence: 4,559,389 (67.72% of population)
- Born in other US state: 1,763,461 (26.19% of population)
- Born in US territory: 50,771 (0.75% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 358,598 (5.33% of population)

Indiana is the self-proclaimed Crossroads of America. The state produces more than 20 percent of the corn for the country.

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11. Minnesota

- 2019 population: 5,639,632
- Born in state of residence: 3,819,536 (67.73% of population)
- Born in other US state: 1,311,604 (23.26% of population)
- Born in US territory: 36,261 (0.64% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 472,231 (8.37% of population)

The Land of 10,000 Lakes is also a land with mosquito problems. But even these "unofficial state birds" cannot deter Minnesota natives from staying. An impressive 67 percent of the population of Minnesota was also born there.

10. Kentucky

- 2019 population: 4,467,673
- Born in state of residence: 3,049,316 (68.25% of population)
- Born in other US state: 1,187,123 (26.57% of population)
- Born in US territory: 34,616 (0.77% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 196,618 (4.4% of population)

Kentucky makes the top 10 for born-and-bred residents, even though one of its most famous natives left and made another state famous instead (Abraham Lincoln). Currently, Kentucky has a booming food and beverage industry, which includes producing over 95 percent of the world's bourbon.

9. West Virginia

- 2019 population: 1,792,147
- Born in state of residence: 1,228,310 (68.54% of population)
- Born in other US state: 522,496 (29.15% of population)
- Born in US territory: 12,593 (0.7% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 28,748 (1.6% of population)

West Virginia is the No. 2 producer of coal in the country. Unfortunately, the state ranks at the bottom in the country for infrastructure.

8. Alabama

- 2019 population: 4,903,185
- Born in state of residence: 3,394,858 (69.24% of population)
- Born in other US state: 1,292,006 (26.35% of population)
- Born in US territory: 41,369 (0.84% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 174,952 (3.57% of population)

Alabama has a college football team that frequently wins. On the list of things that Alabama can be proud of, the state is more diverse than the rest of the country.

7. Iowa

- 2019 population: 3,155,070
- Born in state of residence: 2,199,342 (69.71% of population)
- Born in other US state: 755,951 (23.96% of population)
- Born in US territory: 22,008 (0.7% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 177,769 (5.63% of population)

Perhaps more impressive than a No. 7 ranking for born-and-bred residents, Iowa won the 2018 honor of being the Best State in the Country. The Hawkeye State has first-place rankings in categories such as child wellness visits, infrastructure, and public high school graduation rates.

Wisconsin lighthouse
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6. Wisconsin

- 2019 population: 5,822,434
- Born in state of residence: 4,129,632 (70.93% of population)
- Born in other US state: 1,343,471 (23.07% of population)
- Born in US territory: 55,092 (0.95% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 294,239 (5.05% of population)

Though Wisconsin considers itself the dairy capital of the U.S., California now has more dairy cows and produces more milk. Don't think that will have anyone relinquishing their cheeseheads at Packers games, though.

5. Pennsylvania

- 2019 population: 12,801,989
- Born in state of residence: 9,136,828 (71.37% of population)
- Born in other US state: 2,506,217 (19.58% of population)
- Born in US territory: 265,777 (2.08% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 893,167 (6.98% of population)

Claiming the seventh-largest state economy in the country, the Keystone State is big on pursuing happiness. A whopping 72 percent of Pennsylvania residents were also born there, but companies do not necessarily like to stay. The Tax Foundation has ranked Pennsylvania the second worst state to house corporate headquarters based on the state business taxes.

4. Mississippi

- 2019 population: 2,976,149
- Born in state of residence: 2,127,634 (71.49% of population)
- Born in other US state: 764,524 (25.69% of population)
- Born in US territory: 20,074 (0.67% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 63,917 (2.15% of population)

Mississippi was found to have the sixth-best quality of life in the country. Mississippi also happens to be one of the most religious states in the country.

3. Ohio

- 2019 population: 11,689,100
- Born in state of residence: 8,735,573 (74.73% of population)
- Born in other US state: 2,293,328 (19.62% of population)
- Born in US territory: 101,247 (0.87% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 558,952 (4.78% of population)

The Birthplace of Aviation currently leads the country in the manufacture of plastics and rubber, fabricated metals, and electrical equipment and appliances. In 2017, Ohio was the seventh largest state economy in the country. Further, Buckeyes' votes really count: In almost every election since Johnson in 1964, whichever way Ohio voted is the way the election went.

2. Michigan

- 2019 population: 9,986,857
- Born in state of residence: 7,614,475 (76.24% of population)
- Born in other US state: 1,588,849 (15.91% of population)
- Born in US territory: 82,608 (0.83% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 700,925 (7.02% of population)

Michigan enjoys a robust economy overall. TripAdvisor in 2018 named Mackinac Island America's No. 1 vacation spot.

Baton Rouge
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1. Louisiana

- 2019 population: 4,648,794
- Born in state of residence: 3,607,397 (77.6% of population)
- Born in other US state: 808,020 (17.38% of population)
- Born in US territory: 36,802 (0.79% of population)
- Born in foreign country: 196,575 (4.23% of population)

Louisiana ranks among the U.S. News and World Report's 50 Best States list for a number of reasons, including poverty rate and median household income. Considering such data, it does call into question whether the Louisiana natives stay because they want to or because leaving is too costly.

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