The short answer is: not a whole lot — at least in the near future.
Attorney General Bill Barr, speaking after Trump, acknowledged the administration would face continued legal battles if it continued to push for the census question.
"Attempts to defy the courts never go well for America," Thomas Wolf, an attorney with the Brennan Center for Justice, told Newsweek.
"Think of all the questions that nobody complains are included in our U.S. census every ten years that include a far, far, far smaller number of Americans," Conway said on Fox News.
"I don't know how they can get around it," Andrew Napolitano said, referencing the Supreme Court ruling.
Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi ripped President Donald Trump and his administration's fight to add a citizenship question to the 2020 census, despite the Supreme Court already blocking such an attempt.
"We're thinking about doing that," Trump said of an executive order. "It's one of the ways—we have four or five ways we could do it. We're doing well on the census."
The DOJ have been "instructed to examine whether there is a path forward, consistent with the Supreme Court's decision, that would allow us to include the citizenship question on the census," Joseph Hunt, an assistant attorney general with DOJ's civil division, said.
The freshman lawmaker's suggestion that the leader of the Executive Branch defy a ruling by the Judicial Branch's top court would require Trump to take action that's prohibited by the U.S. Constitution.
"Let's not forget that the inclusion of a citizenship question was not driven by any lawful justification—the Supreme Court made that abundantly clear—but instead, by a discriminatory agenda," California Secretary of State Alex Padilla said.
The cancellation of a citizenship question follows a months-long legal dispute between the Trump administration and litigants in three separate, federal jurisdictions.
Legal experts balked at the president's suggestion, saying it could contradict key Justice Department legal arguments or, at its most extreme, disregard the U.S. Constitution.
The court narrowly decided to protect the accuracy of the census and the rule of law by not allowing a citizenship question, but much more work remains to be done to ensure that every vote is counted.
The Hispanic growth over the last eight years is more than the growth of blacks, whites and Asians combined.
"This prospect of the 2020 Census producing a net national undercount of 4 million people—while double-counting members of some privileged communities—is alarming," wrote Vanita Gupta, president and CEO of The Leadership Conference Education Fund.
"Just like you have a right to remain silent when you're arrested, you have a right to remain silent when the census comes," Andrew Napolitano explained.
The Justice Department's refusal to comply with a congressional subpoena is likely to intensify the separation of powers battle that is escalating between House Democrats and the White House.
The state announced it has sued the federal government for including undocumented immigrants in the 2020 census.
The 2020 census and most federal surveys don't ask people to disclose their sexual orientation or gender identity. That means there's no official count of LGBT people in the country.
There is a long tradition in political philosophy that understands injustice as unequal treatment without justification.
New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman announced on Tuesday that the state would be suing the Trump administration for its citizenship question on the 2020 census.
On March 26, the U.S. Commerce Department announced that a citizenship question would be added to the 2020 census. This question, originally proposed by the Department of Justice, would ostensibly help enforce the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
The Trump administration claims the citizenship question will be used to increase data and prevent voter discrimination.
"We're prepared to do what we must to protect California from a deficient census," Attorney General Xavier Becerra said.