The approval passed with a 55-44 vote in the Republican-controlled chamber on Wednesday night after more than two hours of debate.
The bill, which has the backing of senior health officials and civil rights groups, has angered religious conservatives.
The religious rights group recently erected two billboards in Florida and Texas explaining state laws restricting abortion access could be circumvented by their "religious abortion ritual."
Activists expressed their fury at a top court decision to tighten already strict abortion laws in the predominantly Catholic nation.
"Any time the Supreme Court deals with an abortion case, there will be a brief asking them to overturn Roe and they will have the opportunity to overturn Roe," one expert said.
The abortion debate in their adopted country has caught many first-generation women off-guard.
Barrett's hearings could take an important first step toward withdrawing the Court from the political battlefield that it has entered.
The vice presidential candidates have very different views on abortion rights and the landmark Supreme Court ruling that guaranteed them.
Some internet preachers have described Ruth Bader Ginsburg's death as an opportunity to shift the balance on the Supreme Court, potentially putting the landmark Roe v. Wade ruling in jeopardy.
The president relies on McConnell, Graham and a few others to help him keep his campaign promise to fill the federal courts with conservative judges. Now they're determined to appoint a third SCOTUS justice.
It was an easy decision because I knew what I wanted. I've heard people say: "You'll come to regret your abortion," and 15 years later, I haven't.
"Imagine caring so deeply and passionately about the outcomes of someone's pregnancy you never met," said Ilyse Hogue, the president of NARAL Pro-Choice America.
Civil rights activists see danger in the choices being made between safety and liberty.
"Peoples' needs must always come first, especially at a time like this," said the president of a nonprofit which opposes abortion restrictions.
Pro-abortion advocates have condemned the Trump administration for reportedly fighting to see language from the Hyde Amendment added to the bill.
Sen. Luz Escamilla said the walkout by Democratic and Republican state senators was a "spontaneous decision."
How did this feud, which included a rare rebuke of a top elected official by America's highest judge, originate?
At the March for Life, the president said that New York and Virginia laws permit abortion "all the way up until the moment of birth."
"There are genuine concerns about the long-term future," said reproductive rights expert Mary Ziegler.
Scott Lively, a former GOP candidate for the Massachusetts governor's seat, said on the Pass the Salt podcast that he believed that abortion providers should be put to death, but that he wasn't calling for vigilante-style justice.
A federal appeals court has stricken down Mississippi's 15-week abortion ban, stopping it from taking effect and protecting the state's only open abortion clinic.
A federal jury in San Francisco ruled in favor of Planned Parenthood Friday, handing the group victory in its lawsuit against anti-abortion group Center for Medical Progress and it's president David Daleiden, who they say illegally recorded and then deceptively edited videos of doctors and staff.
Menashi's confirmation has been opposed by several progressive organizations, including Planned Parenthood, the Council on American-Islamic Relations and Alliance for Justice.
Nearly a dozen states have passed legislation restricting access to abortion so far in 2019.
If the bill is passed, South Carolina would join a long list of states that moved this year to ban abortion when a fetal heartbeat is detected.
"The whole thing is not the kind of thing we like in South Carolina," Governor McMaster said.
Parental consent could be a requirement for Florida minors who want an abortion if a bill passed by the state House of Representatives becomes law.