"On seeing our Western coalition partners in the air, we always tailed them, as pilots say, which means a victory in real combat," a top Russian general said.
The chief of the Russian military's general staff said the U.S. was using its southern Syria base in Al-Tanf as a training ground for militants.
President Donald Trump's foreign policy is creating a path for other countries to exert control over the Middle East, according to analysts.
The deadly shelling was a reminder that the city once called "hell" by the U.N. chief was still threatened by violence a year later.
China may ultimately prefer Ukraine to be in Russia's orbit rather than the West's.
One year after a vicious battle turned the tides of war for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, he and his Russian ally want the U.S. gone.
Moscow said if U.S. top brass were not deceiving Trump about success in Syria, they should end their operation in the country. But is the Kremlin doing the same thing?
Politicians in Moscow took turns saluting Putin and Russia's troops, and blasted the U.S. for getting "no significant results" on the battlefield.
"It was all theater," said the U.S.-backed commander who has since switched his allegiance to Turkey.
The Pentagon said it would stay "as long as we need to," defying Syria, Russia and Iran, which see U.S. military presence as illegal.
As Syrian Kurds build ties with the government to cement their stake, Turkey's role could threaten their leverage.
The two leaders share hugs and handshakes, heaping praise on the Russian military campaign supporting the regime, despite allegations of civilian deaths.
The conversation follows Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's visit to Sochi.
Tehran has been aiding Baghdad and Damascus in their battles against the group.
Damascus will "deal with" the two countries after the liberation of Raqqa, Syrian official says.
While the true cost of Russia's campaign in Syria remains up for debate, its given Moscow newfound influence in the Middle East and crucial warfighting experience.
About 800 U.S. soldiers are operating in Niger, part of an "international effort" led by 4,000 French troops.