The Aorounga crater measures 7.8 miles in diameter and is thought to have been created by the fragment of an asteroid that struck Earth less than 345 million years ago.
The carvings were made on a strange formation within the crater known as the "Rain Snake" dyke.
The object will come within about 3 million miles of our planet.
Scientists have long been puzzled by the asymmetrical nature of the moon's two hemispheres.
The source of water on Earth and other planets like Mars is hotly debated in the planetary science community.
Apohis is set to whiz past Earth at a distance of 19,000 miles in 2029.
NASA asteroid hunter Amy Mainzer talks about how the space agency hopes to find potentially hazardous space rocks.
"I knew we were looking at something very rare," said one of the authors of a new study.
The asteroid is located around 214 million miles from the Sun.
The space rock is traveling at around 30,400 miles per hour.
The spacecraft will hopefully return to Earth in 2023 with space rock samples from the surface of the asteroid.
Researchers think the aerial explosion could have destroyed the city in an instant.
The space rock will barrel past Earth at 4 miles a second.
The research could help scientists understand natural disasters like landslides.
The comet was discovered hurtling through the solar system in 2017, but its origins have remained a mystery.
The 2015 BZ509 asteroid orbits the sun in the opposite direction to everything else in the solar system.