Iran has blamed Israel for last week's killing of its top nuclear scientist, and vowed revenge against those responsible.
Videos and images from the scene showed security forces using what appeared to be tear gas and water cannon to disperse demonstrators.
The rockets reportedly hit the embassy cafeteria and caused minor injuries to at least one person.
At least six rockets were fired in the Sunday attack that wounded at least four Iraqi troops.
Iraq's caretaker prime minister called a special session of parliament to discuss the recent U.S. strike that left a prominent Iraqi military commander dead.
The president campaigned on a vow to bring American troops home, but his standoff with Iran has seen thousands more soldiers deployed to the Middle East.
"Yesterday's action vs the disgraceful response at Benghazi is all you need to know about leadership then & now!" the president's eldest son said.
In a series of tweets posted Tuesday afternoon, Rep. Tulsi Gabbard has declared that President Trump's "impulsive" foreign policy lies behind the attack on America's Baghdad embassy.
A State Department spokesperson said U.S. Ambassador to Iraq Matt Tueller had been on "previously scheduled travel for a week" and claimed reports of his evacuation were false.
"His death could have and should have been prevented, as his deportation was essentially a death sentence," said Democratic Michigan Rep. Andy Levin.
"It definitely rattled people," a former senior U.S. administration official told The Wall Street Journal. "People were shocked. It was mind-boggling how cavalier they were about hitting Iran."
The fire damaged a warehouse complex holding half of Baghdad's votes from last month's disputed Iraqi parliamentary election.
Iraqi journalist Muntazer al-Zaidi, famous for throwing shoes at former President George W. Bush, spoke to Newsweek about the "big ideas" he has for his country.
Fifteen years after the fall of Baghdad, Iraq has reportedly killed one of ISIS chief Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi's top men.
Russia and the U.S. continue to trade claims about the most wanted militant in the world.
Kurdish officials say the political ramifications of suspending the landmark vote are too big to reverse course.
German authorities say they are providing assistance to the 16-year-old.
Human Rights Watch said an Iraqi unit trained by American forces summarily executed prisoners in western Mosul.
German security services say more than 900 German nationals have left the country to fight for ISIS.
Canadian nationals were reportedly among those who joined the militant group in Iraq.
Iraqi security forces discovered 16-year-old Linda W. from Saxony among five German ISIS members.
The report said civilians were subjected to "relentless and unlawful attacks" by the coalition during the Mosul military operation.
Iraqi forces are making women remove their headscarves after 38 female suicide bombers struck over the past month.
The group destroyed the mosque earlier this month amidst its final stand for the city.
The sniper stopped an ISIS ambush on Iraqi security forces with a shot from over two miles.