Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman has steadfastly denied ordering the dissident journalist's murder, despite significant evidence linking him directly with the kill team.
"Saudi Arabia has engaged in acts that are simply not acceptable," Republican Senator Jim Risch said.
Trump's unwavering support for Saudi Arabia has raised significant bipartisan criticism from lawmakers in Washington.
The GOP politician from Tennessee slammed the White House's response to Jamal Khashoggi's killing.
"We do know of course he has openly bragged about how many millions he makes from Saudi Arabia," the California Democrat pointed out. "Is his personal financial interest driving U.S. policy in the gulf?" he asked.
"The expectation that Trump as president will be starkly different from Trump as candidate is a false hope at best," Jamal Khashoggi wrote in 2016.
Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman is a rising star in the Middle East, but his hands are tied.
U.S. Central Command confirm "multiple ground operations" by American forces in the country.
The Gulf kingdom intercepted the rocket that targeted the residence of King Salman on Tuesday.
Saudi Arabia reopened its embassy in Baghdad in 2015 following a 25-year break.
The fast-food company ran a newspaper advertisement after Salman's promotion on Wednesday.