Moscow has accused Kyiv of being behind strikes on targets in the Kursk, Saratov and Ryazan regions.
Damaged critical infrastructure could lead to a humanitarian crisis in Ukraine as a frigid winter looms.
A portion of the back of the aircraft appears to have been torn off in a blast at the Dyagilevo airfield near Ryazan, Russia.
The Kremlin has blamed Ukraine for strikes on two of its air bases.
Russia is boasting of other drones not supplied by Iran that are being used successfully by ground forces in parts of Ukraine.
"There have even been attempts to illegally cross our border with military drones and other aircraft," said Peskov Governor Mikhail Vedernikov on Saturday.
This week, Ukrainian Defense Minister Oleksii Reznikov also suggested that Russia's missile stockpile is dwindling.
Congress has urged the Pentagon to authorize the sale of the weapons, saying they have the potential to alter the course of the war in Ukraine.
Ukraine's Ministry of Defense shared a video that purportedly captures a bird's-eye view of a Russian soldier surrendering to a drone.
Australian fisherman Trapman Bermagui, who filmed the encounter, said he could hear the attack from over 300 feet away.
The Ukrainian Air Force's South Command said three Russian ammunition depots in the Beryslav and Kherson district had also been destroyed.
Tehran has already supplied drones to Russia and the supplying of ballistic missiles would increase Iran's support for Russian President Vladimir Putin.
Over the past few months, Ukraine has continued to say that Russia is using Iranian-made drones in the ongoing war.
"We have anti-air defense, but not anti-missile defense," a spokesperson for Ukraine's Air Force said on Tuesday.
"Drones will use artificial intelligence to make decisions whether to attack or not, saving human lives and costs," Atlas Aerospace CEO Ivan Tolchinsky said.
A minesweeper was damaged during an attack on the Russian-occupied city of Sevastopol, home to Russia's Black Sea Fleet.
The group, known sometimes as "GVC," is made up mostly of young men and women with backgrounds in IT and video games.
The drones are reportedly less costly to use against key targets than other traditional means of attack, like missiles.
"These UAVs are slow, noisy and fly at low altitudes, making lone aircraft easy to target conventional air defenses," the U.K. Defense Ministry said on Monday.
Ukraine says its troops have destroyed hundreds of the Iranian-produced drones Russia hoped would turn the tide of the war in its favor.
The U.S. said that Tehran is helping to train Russians to use the unmanned aerial vehicles which have hit civilian targets in Ukraine.
"We have never exported weapons or ammunition to Russia before and we will not plan to export them," a North Korean official said.
While the Iranian regime selling military equipment and fighting proxy wars is nothing new, this time Iran's actions sparked a chain reaction: the European Union threatened Iran with graver sanctions and the United States declared Iran had violated U.N. Security Council resolutions.
The Russian Embassy in Norway has repeatedly criticized officials for the arrests, referring to them on Facebook as "psychosis that is unfolding in Norway."
When asked about using Iranian drones in recent attacks in Ukraine, Russian officials promised that only Russian equipment was being used.
"These aren't weapons that are gonna change the battlefield, they are weapons that are gonna kill more civilians," Katherine Lawlor of the ISW told Newsweek.
The attack, which produced a large explosion and billowing smoke, occurred in the Russian-occupied region of Donetsk, according to Ukrainian officials.
Over the past several weeks, Iran has continued to deny supplying drones or other military equipment to Russia.