Rusty Hicks, chair of the California Democratic Party, filed a complaint alleging that Elder "failed to properly disclose his interest in and income from his business."
The Office of Government Ethics said in April it would consider approving up to two extensions for the annual report, with the final deadline set for August 13.
All except three of Trump's golf courses had losses from the prior year.
It is "mind-boggling how someone can have that many errors and that many amendments and keep their job," a spokesman for a watchdog group said.
A Kushner Companies spokeswoman said, "These type of inquiries appear to be harassment solely for political reasons."
It is not clear whether Kushner's debt rise is linked to financial challenges plaguing Kushner Companies.
Kushner has updated his financial disclosure form a few dozen times since filing it in March.
Thirteen Democrats want the president's son-in-law to detail any conversations he may have had with foreign interests concerning financing of a Manhattan building.
A lawmaker is calling for Jared Kushner's security clearance to be revoked say he "enriched himself" by omitting from his initial White House financial records a company he cofounded with his brother.
Cruz claimed to self finance the 2012 bid but will discrepancy matter.