President Hassan Rouhani added that the "outrageous and idiotic" U.S decision to impose sanctions meant the "certain failure" of American efforts.
"The entire world recognizes the U.S. as a country reneging on its promises," President Hassan Rouhani said on Tuesday.
"That's a very serious issue if they continue to do that," Trump's national security adviser warned.
"Washington is deliberately provoking Iran," Russian Foreign Ministry spokesperson Maria Zakharova claimed.
"You use terrorist groups against the peoples of the region and yet claim to have been fighting terrorism?" President Hassan Rouhani asked.
"No one can defeat a nation which pursues resistance," Iranian President Hassan Rouhani said in a televised address, claiming the U.S. and its allies were to blame for the country's poor economy.
Russian President Vladimir Putin, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Iranian President Hassan Rouhani met in the Black Sea city of Sochi, Russia, to discuss bringing the Syrian conflict to a close.
The president has lobbed attacks at the leaders of some of America's closest allies, as well as those of international rivals.
After taking office, President Donald Trump quickly appointed son-in-law Jared Kushner, the husband of his daughter Ivanka, as a senior adviser with a wide-ranging portfolio.
"The United States is a regime formed on the basis of capitalism, racial discrimination and hegemonism," Major General Mohammad Ali Jafari said.
"We will not obey such sanctions," Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said, adding that his government saw Washington's move as "violating the global balance."
"U.S. bullying is backfiring," Foreign Minister Javad Zarif warned earlier on Monday.
"We are in the economic war situation," Iranian President Hassan Rouhani warned as new U.S. sanctions took effect. "We are confronting a bullying enemy."
Although an official said that the Iranian leader's phone would be replaced with a more secure device, he did not reveal further details or suggest who had hacked the phone.
"Confronting multilateralism is not a sign of strength. Rather, it is a symptom of a weakness of intellect," the Iranian president told the U.N. General Assembly.
"Even if Trump himself is interested in negotiations, the people around him are committed to not letting that happen," said the president of the National Iranian American Council.
Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said on Sunday that President Donald Trump is "happy to talk with folks at any time."
Iranian military spokesman Abolfazl Shekarchi has said the attack was carried out by groups linked to the U.S. and Israeli intelligence.
Washington has repeatedly stated it is not interested in a 'regime change' in Tehran.
Despite Khamenei promising that war is not an option, he also said that dialogue with Washington is not on the table.
"I am asking for WORLD PEACE, nothing less!" Trump said in early-morning tweet.
"Even in the worst case, I promise that the basic needs of Iranians will be provided. We have enough sugar, wheat and cooking oil. We have enough foreign currency to inject into the market," Rouhani said.
"If the current capabilities of the Revolutionary Guards ... reaches the ears of the adventure-seeking president of America, he will never make this kind of mistake."
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said that "major powers have spoiled Iran" as he joined President Donald Trump in isolating the Islamic Republic.