Twin offensives will overlap, as rebels fight for Raqqa in Syria and coalition forces attempt to recapture Mosul in Iraq.
Erdoğan controls the press, targets opponents and falsely smears them.
The threat from within Europe appears greater than that from ISIS's central command.
Number 1: How did Erdoğan, born into poverty, become a billionaire?
Troops attack militants in Hammam al-Alil, while special forces fight inside Mosul's eastern districts.
The Turks have sent forces into Iraq without consent from the Iraqi government.
The self-proclaimed caliph, in his first audio message in a year, also called for attacks.
Iraqi forces are now less than a mile from Mosul's eastern edge.
The elite unit had paused its advance to allow other units to make similar progress.
Militias are loyal to the Quds Brigade and may have designs to fight for Shi'ites beyond Iraq.
There is little prospect of a negotiated settlement for Syria with Russia.
The head of the anti-ISIS coalition said removing ISIS from Raqqa will take longer than Mosul.
The Hashd al-Shaabi umbrella group has so far played a limited role in retaking Mosul.
Aid groups have warned of a humanitarian crisis in the fallout from the campaign.
An Iraqi force of about 30,000, under American, French and British air cover, is ready to push into Mosul after recapturing Falluja and Ramadi and seizing Tikrit.
About 50 villages have been captured as the military clears the way for the main battle in Mosul.
Some who tried to return to the Syrian city were jailed and accused of backing ISIS.
In 2014, 23 percent of all U.S. residents raised in Muslim households had left their religion.
Diplomats from the anti-ISIS coalition are meeting in Paris for talks on a stabilization plan in Mosul.