In two Scottish caves, one of which was said to be used by a 16th-century murderer to dump bodies, a rare species of tiny crab has potentially been found.
Human overpopulation and agricultural practices are endangering the tiny amphibians, according to biologist Eric Smith.
With its huge head and small body, the creature, Chemnitzion richteri, developed up to 300 million years ago in forests around eastern Germany.
The new species of lizard dubbed Optimus Prime was classified as endangered almost as soon as it was found in the ruined ancient Inca city of Machu Picchu.
Phaloris shawnella has been detected in just two places so far in the land-locked South American republic of Paraguay.
The insect is so rare that the most recent sighting of a similar species was made in a different country in 1969.
"Books on prehistoric animals for kids need to update and put this weird tail in there....It just looks crazy," Chilean paleontologist Alex Vargas said.
The dinosaur, dubbed Berthasaura leopoldinae, represents a new species.
The fossils, which date to between 66 and 68 million years ago, could also represent a new species altogether, according to paleontologists.
"The name honors Led Zeppelin and their extraordinary music," David Brito-Zapata and Carolina Reyes-Puig, the scientists who made the discovery, wrote in a study that was published on June 13.
"[S]ome of these new pathogens, we just really don't know how they're going to behave when they're in Connecticut. They've never been here before," Jason White, the director of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, said, according to NBC Connecticut.
The paleontologists who made the find believe that it could take years to exhume the remains completely.
The first reported sighting of the Pine Rockland trapdoor spider occurred in 2012. Since then, "only a handful" of specimens, all male, have been discovered, according to a Zoo Miami press release.
The fish is only found in the waters of Costa Rica's Cocos Island.
Intriguingly, researchers found that males of the species have "quite large" genitalia relative to their tiny size.
Researchers also found another news species of prehistoric shark in Georgia.
The bizarre creatures are colloquially known as "Elvis worms" due to their shiny scales being reminiscent of the King of Rock's famous sequinned suits.
Researchers say the mata mata turtle split into two species during the late Miocene approximately 13 million years ago.
The experiment also led to the team discovering a new species of worm.
Discovery comes 74 years after evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr predicted fewer than 100 bird species were left to be discovered in the whole world.
The arachnid belongs to a genus, or group of species, known as Loxosceles—which are commonly referred to as recluse spiders, violin spiders, brown spiders, fiddle-backs or reapers.
"I chose this name as I am immensely impressed with the work of this young campaigner," the scientist behind the naming said.
The new species is unique to New Guinea—the world's second-largest island.
Researchers announce there are three different species of electric eel, 250 years after first being found.
Dr. Paul Nathanson was speaking to The Laura Ingraham Podcast about transhumanism.
Despite just being discovered, the new species is already thought to be at risk of extinction.