The rock art was found in the central Markazi Province and appears to depict a praying mantis and a squatting man.
Symbolism has been an important part of human society since prehistoric times. Scientists show that engravings become more salient, more memorable and easier to reproduce over time.
Researchers say that the engravings in the cave are the oldest of their kind ever discovered in the Spanish autonomous region of Catalonia.
Using carbon extracted from wasp nests, scientists were able to date Australian rock art to a period of sea level rise and social disruption.
Researchers say the cave drawings, dated to around 44,000 years, may represent the capacity for religious or spiritual thinking.
Study looks at the reasons behind "an enigmatic feature of the rock art" found at sites across Western Europe.
For as much as it might reveal about ancient island cultures, the art itself is incredibly tiny.
"The thing that surprised us the most was the sheer size of some of the engravings."
The engraving, known as a petroglyph, shows a circle with curved, intricate swirling emissions issuing from it.