As many as 200 more politicians could be implicated in a sprawling bribery probe.
Brazil's law-making organ votes votes 59 to 21 in favor of trying the country's embattled leader.
More than 30 men reputedly assaulted the girl in a Rio favela and posted a video to Twitter.
The move rejected a surprise decision by the acting speaker of the lower house, who tried to annul a key vote.
President says opponents would target social programs instituted by her Workers Party if she is removed from office.
Critics slam president's decision to speak about Brazil's troubles at the United Nations.
Rousseff, Brazil's first female president, maintains there are no legal grounds for her ouster.
With 100 votes cast, 73 were in favor of impeaching Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff.
President's opponents are just 9 votes short in Brazil's lower house; removal increasingly seems likely.
The court ruled on Thursday to take a corruption investigation away from a crusading federal judge.
Police said 2,500 people demonstrated outside the presidential palace in the capital of Brasilia.
Dilma Rousseff won the Brazilian election with 51.6% of the vote, but faces challenges to revive the stagnant economy
Brazil's leftist President Dilma Rousseff placed a strong first in Sunday's election but did not get enough votes to avoid a runoff and will face pro-business rival Aecio Neves.