"We will not expel anyone," Putin said in a statement, adding that Russia reserved the right to retaliate.
The closures echoed the old days of tensions between the United States and the former Soviet Union.
Russian diplomats would be given 72 hours to leave the United States.
The Obama administration plans to announce on Thursday a series of retaliatory measures against Russia.
Trump could clash with Republicans if they propose actions against the Kremlin.
Chuck Schumer, John McCain, Lindsey Graham and Jack Reed say a select committee is needed.
U.S. security services suspect President Vladimir Putin's direct involvement, it has been reported.
"The Russians are not our friends," Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell told a news conference.
Donald Trump is expected to meet with Carly Fiorina on Monday.
Cyber attacks are not new but might have crossed a "new threshold" this year.