Scientists have mapped changes to the algae that forms on the surface of snow during the frozen continent's summer months.
Dangerous temperatures could hit Phoenix, reaching up to 108 F.
Tornadoes were reported in Texas as strong northeasterdly winds brought rain and thunderstorms to large parts of the state.
First model experiments suggest that by increasing the number of large herbivores in the Arctic, we could slow down permafrost thawing.
Some areas could see temperatures drop below zero.
Another weather system is also causing river flooding in some Midwest and south eastern states, with flood warnings in place for the next several days.
"Jon Favreau, I did this well under budget, only $25,000 and 1 crew member (son)," said one Twitter user.
Low pressure will move from the midwest through to the east coast, affecting states such as Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, New Jersey and more.
A winter storm hit parts of the Midwest and Northwest on Friday and will continue onto the Northeast through the weekend.
Paula Beth James, 68, was rescued after her Toyota 4Runner was spotted by a helicopter in Butte Meadows, California.
A winter storm is expected to move from parts of Washington, Oregon and California through the Midwest before hitting the eastern region, with up to 3 feet of snow expected in some local pockets.
With a high of 68 degrees, New York City saw its warmest January 11th since 1975. Meanwhile, residents in northern Texas woke up to a snowy surprise.
Among the fatalities included a police officer and a firefighter in Lubbock, Texas.
"Maybe it's worth giving a look to see if that list could be amended, to mitigate that odd news story that keeps coming up like a bad penny," Lisa Rasmussen, president of the Wausau City Council, said of the 1962 ordinance.
Which states are most likely to see snow on Christmas Day morning?
Multiple counties in northern and central New Jersey and parts of New York were expected to be hit with sudden heavy snowfall.
Although snow accumulation was forecasted to be minor, roads could be slippery, making for a tough morning commute.
The National Weather has issued several winter storm warnings and winter weather advisories.
Heavy winter weather is also affecting Minnesota, Wisconsin and the U.S. East Coast.
Snow accumulation will likely only be a few inches, but it could make for a sluggish commute to work.
Conditions are expected to impact the morning commute as well as expose people to frostbite with subzero temperatures.
Large parts of California, including around Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area, warned of heavy rain, snowfall, strong winds and potential flooding forecast for this weekend.
As the powerful winter storm leaves the Northeast, a new storm building off the West coast is expected to bring heavy rain and mountain snow in California and New Mexico.
Another round of snow is forecast to hit parts of New England on Friday.
Governor Andrew Cuomo declared a state of emergency for New York and deployed National Guard members to help with snow removal.
More than 200 schools across New Jersey, Connecticut, Albany and other parts of the New England area are closed following severe disruption from the winter storm that hit the Northeast this weekend.
The winter storm that wrecked havoc out west on Thanksgiving Day has since moved east.