The bombastic president said he would be willing to support Washington if war broke out with Beijing in the South China Sea.
A Pentagon spokesperson said China's actions are "contrary to its claim to want to bring peace to the region."
A Chinese ship reportedly rammed a Filipino fishing vessel and left the crew in the water.
The legislation would force the government to seize financial assets and revoke or deny visas of individuals involved in expansionary Chinese policy.
A Global Times op-ed said the U.S. is "far more sensitive than its allies."
The Global Times warned that the U.S. would be "bound to pay the price" if it acts aggressively over Taiwan.
"We need to carefully plan the overall development of the islands and reefs based on their different functions, taking into account their complementary relationship," a Communist Party official said.
"The relevant actions of the U.S. warships violated Chinese sovereignty," a Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson said.
"You're talking to our allies over there and you wonder whose side they're going to be on," Senator James Inhofe warned.
The Dongfeng-26 missile has been dubbed the "Guam killer."
The U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency has been warned Beijing's modernized forces "will enable China to impose its will."
"The Taiwan issue is a matter of China's internal affairs," General Li Zuocheng said.
Beijing and Washington vie for influence in the Asia-Pacific as China presses strategic regional goals.
The country's pacifist constitution has long prevented governments from attaining carriers.
Disagreements on an array of issues, exacerbated by political incentives to avoid compromise, raise a persistent risk of military crisis.
"If you are friends with two countries which are on different sides, sometimes it is possible to get along with both, sometimes it's more awkward when you try to get along with both," Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong warned.
It was a close shave in the South China Sea.
Ben Hodges spoke of "an increasingly tense relationship and increasing competition in all the different domains."
They were left floating on the wreckage for five days.
There are 261 joint exercises scheduled for this year, which will increase to 281 in 2019.
"We will take all necessary means to safeguard our rights and interests," said a Chinese Defense Ministry spokesman.
Around 5 million people are in the path of the super typhoon's 180-mile-per-hour winds.
China says it may not give the U.K. a good post-Brexit trade deal.
A new report says Chinese nuclear-capable bombers are "likely training for strikes against U.S. and allied targets."
Beijing sent a U.S. navy plane six warnings to turn away from the South China Sea last week.
Xi warned Mattis on Wednesday that China "cannot lose even one inch of the territory left behind by our ancestors."