Abe's remarks come two weeks after he sparked a minor diplomatic incident by sharing identical views in a similar setting.
Chinese government vessels continued to follow and photograph Philippine boats resupplying troops on a disputed South China Sea atoll on Tuesday, Manila said.
An "all-out" attack on Taiwan was unlikely in the next decade, said the former secretary of state, but China would seek to weaken Taiwan's autonomy.
Philippine Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana said China promised not to intervene in its resupply missions to Second Thomas Shoal—part of a disputed archipelago.
The remarks, delivered at the ASEAN-China special summit, come after an alleged incident involving Philippine cargo ships in the South China Sea.
U.S. officials should continue to encourage its allies and partners in the Indo-Pacific to take ownership of their own security, bolstering the region's ability to check China from becoming a Eurasian hegemon.
Chinese coast guard water-cannoned Philippine supply ships at the disputed Second Thomas Shoal, prompting Filipino officials to remind them of a U.S. treaty.
Manila called the Chinese actions "illegal" and reminded Beijing of the U.S.'s backing on South China Sea disputes.
Images "detail the construction of a sophisticated weapons test range" that "incorporates a number of simulated U.S. Navy Carrier strike group vessels as targets," Maxar Technologies said.
Europeans have come a long way in adopting a more confrontational stance against China in step with the United States.
Vice Admiral Karl Thomas, commander of the U.S. 7th Fleet, said that the leadership team had been relieved "due to loss of confidence."
The Chinese Foreign Ministry accused the U.S. of lacking transparency a day after the U.S. Navy revealed more details about the October incident.
China is calling for the U.S. to take responsibility for an accident involving a nuclear-powered submarine in the South China Sea last month.
USS Connecticut was reportedly operating in the South China Sea when the accident grounded the U.S. Navy ship last month.
USS Connecticut's accident in the South China Sea in October has become an opportunity for China to denounce freedom of navigation—and the AUKUS pact.
The legislation approved by the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations aims to allow the U.S. to counter China's maritime claims with targeted sanctions.
The United States is not legally bound to defend Taiwan in the event of an attack by China and has maintained "strategic ambiguity" for over 40 years.
About 11 sailors experienced minor or moderate injuries following the incident. The attack submarine is now returning to port.
The Chinese envoy to ASEAN tweeted after 149 Chinese military planes flew sorties into the skies off southwestern Taiwan in early October.
The secretary of state warned against "unilateral actions that change the status quo by force" across the Taiwan Strait.
Analysis of satellite imagery showed what appeared to be Chinese warships monitoring American and British carrier groups in the South China Sea.
Taiwan reported that 38 Chinese aircraft entered the island's air defense identification zone Friday, the largest daily Chinese incursion into the area.
The AUKUS deal is "not something that anybody needs to worry about, and particularly not our French friends," U.K. Prime Minster Boris Johnson said.
The senator and boxing legend has slammed President Rodrigo Duterte for not doing more in the face of China's maritime assertiveness.
"It will provoke other powers to take more aggressive action," Malaysia's prime minister warned on Saturday amid concerns of China's response.
Taiwan's Defense Ministry has confirmed air defense identification zone intrusions by a fleet of nine Chinese military aircraft on Wednesday.
The nimble warship is the first of a new batch of naval vessels that experts say will improve Taiwan's asymmetric warfare capabilities against China.
USS Benfold conducted the U.S. Navy's first freedom of navigation operation since China introduced a new reporting law for foreign vessels.
A Chinese think tank objected to the U.S. Air Force reconnaissance aircraft's use of "JUNKY81" as a call sign during a close-in operation on Tuesday.