The director of Taiwan's National Security Bureau said China's ruling Communist Party is "trapped inside a security dilemma."
Polling by a Beijing-friendly newspaper showed 10 percent of Taiwan's public was interested in some form of "unification" with China.
The Global Times warned Taiwan that the U.S. won't "fight to the death" over Taiwan, but China is prepared to wage the battle.
A Chinese official said the drills were provoked by "Taiwan's independence forces" and "external forces."
"Facing this serious accident, we extend our deepest condolences to the victims, and we wish the injured a speedy recovery," Taiwan's president said.
Taiwan's defense minister confirmed on Tuesday that the group was stateside for the Association of the U.S. Army's annual gathering in Washington, D.C.
Defense Department spokesperson John Kirby described recent Chinese military maneuvers near Taiwan as "destabilizing and only increase the risk of miscalculation."
A Chinese government spokesperson removed any doubt surrounding the intended targets of the recent exercises during a press conference on Wednesday.
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"We believe more countries, with their eyes wide open, will oppose the U.S. hegemonic approach featuring politicization and a sense of supremacy in pursuit of self-interests at the expense of others," the Chinese Foreign Ministry's Zhao Lijian said.
China's Foreign Ministry spokesperson Zhao Lijian on Tuesday said Taiwan was "not qualified" to join the UN as a Chinese province.
Tsai Ing-wen articulated her country's own "bottom line," which she described as the will of the Taiwanese people.
The United States is not legally bound to defend Taiwan in the event of an attack by China and has maintained "strategic ambiguity" for over 40 years.
Polling by pro-government and opposition bodies reflects sanguine attitudes toward tensions across the Taiwan Strait.
Taiwan's ruling party has "thrown itself into a political gamble that has only short-term benefits and no chance of winning in the long run," said the Global Times.
Ex-Australian PM Tony Abbott warned of what China might do given its slowing economy and a sense its "relative power might have peaked."
"The US dispatching military personnel to the island of Taiwan is a very severe matter," said an editorial piece in the Global Times.
China has urged the U.S. to provide details, the submarine's purpose of cruising, and whether it caused a nuclear leak or damaged the marine environment.
"The US should send 240 servicemen publicly, in US military uniform, and make public where they are stationed," the editor-in-chief of the paper said.
The Chinese envoy to ASEAN tweeted after 149 Chinese military planes flew sorties into the skies off southwestern Taiwan in early October.
The secretary of state warned against "unilateral actions that change the status quo by force" across the Taiwan Strait.
News of the meeting comes after White House National Security Adviser Jake Sullivan met with Yang Jiechi, a senior Chinese foreign policy adviser.
Taiwan's Defense Minister told lawmakers on Wednesday that the country's armed forces are under strict instructions to abide by the principle.
Ahead of the trip, China tried to discourage the French senators from going to Taiwan.
"If Taiwan were to fall, the consequences would be catastrophic for regional peace and the democratic alliance system," Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen said.
Tsai Ing-wen said the recent Chinese military maneuvers had "seriously undermined regional peace and stability."
The president told reporters on Tuesday that he and Chinese leader Xi Jinping had agreed to "abide by the Taiwan agreement."
The talks come after what the international community has condemned as military harassment against Taiwan by China.
In a wide-ranging essay published on Tuesday, Taiwan's president said her country would neither "bend to pressure," nor become adventurist with support.