Beijing considers the island nation to be a part of China and has long vowed to bring it under the control of the Communist Party.
On Tuesday, the Senate unanimously agreed to a new bill fortifying U.S. support for Taiwan, which Beijing considers a future part of a unified China.
Foreign Ministry spokesperson Hua Chunying said China was "strongly indignant" after Pence delivered his speech.
A spokesperson for the Chinese government said Taiwan's offer "helped cover up the criminalities of a small number of violent radicals" and offered them safe haven.
China is facing off with what it considered U.S. interference on two fronts—an $8 billion sale of state-of-the-art fighter jets to Taiwan and support for increasingly violent demonstrations in Hong Kong.
Taiwan is likely to shift further away from Beijing as a result of the developments in Hong Kong, no matter who wins the upcoming presidential election.
"The way forward is genuine democratic elections, not violence in the streets," Taiwanese Foreign Minister Joseph Wu said.
China is far more dependent on trade today than it was during the crackdown on 1989. But Xi also wants to resolve the situation promptly.
The State Department last week approved a $2.2 billion weapons deal with Taiwan prompting condemnation from Beijing.
Earlier this week the State Department approved a $2.2 billion military package for Taiwan, prompting Chinese condemnation.
Tensions in the Pacific run high between the U.S. and China over the independence of Taiwan and territorial claims in the South China Sea.
A Global Times op-ed said the U.S. is "far more sensitive than its allies."
The Global Times warned that the U.S. would be "bound to pay the price" if it acts aggressively over Taiwan.
State media dismissed criticism after two Chinese fighter jets crossed the "middle line" between the mainland and Taiwan on Sunday.
Chinese authorities confiscated and destroyed 803 boxes containing the 28,908 "problematic" maps.
Chinese General Wang Weixing argued that if reunited with Beijing, Taiwan would retain significant political, economic and diplomatic independence.
New Zealand opposition leader says incident shows how ties between New Zealand and China are worsening.
Far too many people in Taiwan simply do not trust the Chinese government.
A foreign ministry spokesperson said the Pentagon report was "extremely unprofessional and contained absurd accusations."
The U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency has been warned Beijing's modernized forces "will enable China to impose its will."
"The Taiwan issue is a matter of China's internal affairs," General Li Zuocheng said.
The comments came just days after Xi reserved the right to use force to bring Taiwan under the mainland's control.
Beijing and Washington vie for influence in the Asia-Pacific as China presses strategic regional goals.
However, Scott Chen asserted that he was a supporter of gay marriage.
The country's pacifist constitution has long prevented governments from attaining carriers.
"There is only one thing I still hope for in my 50 years of military service: the reunification of the motherland," Chinese Lieutenant General He Lei said.
"I'm proud of yesterday's Golden Horse Awards – it highlighted how Taiwan is different from China," President Tsai Ing-Wen wrote on her Facebook page.
The remarks come after Chinese President Xi Jinping told his forces to "concentrate on preparing for war."