The damning report found many conscripts and reserves who felt their short duration of training left them and their countrymen unprepared for conflict.
The Chinese leader spoke at length on Monday as the Biden administration began work to help Taiwan's future participation at the United Nations.
Regular military operations returned to the skies southwest of Taiwan following a brief period of quiet in which China sent just four flights in 11 days.
The Chinese publication said "the U.S. will become a historic sinner that further undermines world unity" by backing Taiwan at the United Nations.
President Joe Biden stirred controversy Thursday when he said the U.S. has a "commitment" to defend Taiwan against a potential Chinese attack.
Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin was committed to "the Three Assurances" and "Six Communiques," while he actually meant the Three Communiques and Six Assurances.
"The complete reunification of the motherland must be fulfilled, and it will definitely be fulfilled," Ma Xiaoguang of China's Taiwan Affairs Office said.
"Nobody wants to see cross-Strait issues come to blows—certainly not President Biden, and there's no reason that it should," Austin said.
The U.S. has long pursued a policy of so-called "strategic ambiguity" on the issue of defending Taiwan.
The director of Taiwan's National Security Bureau said China's ruling Communist Party is "trapped inside a security dilemma."
Polling by a Beijing-friendly newspaper showed 10 percent of Taiwan's public was interested in some form of "unification" with China.
The Global Times warned Taiwan that the U.S. won't "fight to the death" over Taiwan, but China is prepared to wage the battle.
A Chinese official said the drills were provoked by "Taiwan's independence forces" and "external forces."
"Facing this serious accident, we extend our deepest condolences to the victims, and we wish the injured a speedy recovery," Taiwan's president said.
Taiwan's defense minister confirmed on Tuesday that the group was stateside for the Association of the U.S. Army's annual gathering in Washington, D.C.
Defense Department spokesperson John Kirby described recent Chinese military maneuvers near Taiwan as "destabilizing and only increase the risk of miscalculation."
A Chinese government spokesperson removed any doubt surrounding the intended targets of the recent exercises during a press conference on Wednesday.
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"We believe more countries, with their eyes wide open, will oppose the U.S. hegemonic approach featuring politicization and a sense of supremacy in pursuit of self-interests at the expense of others," the Chinese Foreign Ministry's Zhao Lijian said.
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China's Foreign Ministry spokesperson Zhao Lijian on Tuesday said Taiwan was "not qualified" to join the UN as a Chinese province.
Tsai Ing-wen articulated her country's own "bottom line," which she described as the will of the Taiwanese people.
The United States is not legally bound to defend Taiwan in the event of an attack by China and has maintained "strategic ambiguity" for over 40 years.
Polling by pro-government and opposition bodies reflects sanguine attitudes toward tensions across the Taiwan Strait.
Taiwan's ruling party has "thrown itself into a political gamble that has only short-term benefits and no chance of winning in the long run," said the Global Times.
Ex-Australian PM Tony Abbott warned of what China might do given its slowing economy and a sense its "relative power might have peaked."
"The US dispatching military personnel to the island of Taiwan is a very severe matter," said an editorial piece in the Global Times.
China has urged the U.S. to provide details, the submarine's purpose of cruising, and whether it caused a nuclear leak or damaged the marine environment.