When exactly plate tectonics emerged and how it has evolved through time are two of the most significant and hotly debated questions in Earth sciences today.
We show that at least one third of all continental crust has been massively deformed since the supercontinent Pangea first started breaking up.
The collision triggers a chemical reaction that causes carbon dioxide to be sucked from the atmosphere.
The quake struck 60 miles from the Bushehr nuclear plant in the south of the country.
A recent study further unravels the mystery of Yellowstone's volcanic system.
Molten rock deep below Earth's surface could have been crucial to life taking off.
Giant global networks of rift valleys had an impact way above the surface of the Earth.
The borehole revealed extreme underground heat and fluid pressure that could be used as a source of geothermal energy.
The continent likely broke off from a supercontinent hundreds of millions of years ago.