World's Best Hospitals 2022 - Top 250

World's Best Hospitals 2022

The world's hospitals have been the front line in medicine's constantly evolving war against COVID-19 for two years now. According to the experts who helped guide the results of our annual ranking of the World's Best Hospitals, that has meant learning to adapt to new and existing challenges quickly and improvising on the fly.

For instance, according to Dr. Gary S. Kaplan, former CEO of Virginia Mason Franciscan Health and current senior vice president of CommonSpirit Health, "The pandemic has exacerbated a worldwide healthcare staffing shortage, especially in nursing."

David Bates, chief of general internal medicine and primary care at Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital (No. 17 on Newsweek's Best Hospitals Global Leaders list) says, "We had to very rapidly convert beds to ICU beds, and close large sections of the hospital, then come up with staff to cover those beds. There were also great challenges with managing our supply chain for things like ventilators and personal protective equipment."

Dr. Christoph Meier, Director of the Department of Internal Medicine at University Hospital Zurich (No. 15 on our Global Leaders list) says, "Many lessons could be learned from COVID, such as recognizing the efficacy of virtual meetings, valuing the importance of hospital hygiene and emphasizing the importance of generalists over siloed specialization. The biggest challenge was the joint setting of individual priorities for a common goal."

Many medical institutions struggled with these and other challenges over the course of the pandemic but what has set the world's leading hospitals apart is their continued ability to deliver the highest-quality patient care and conduct critical medical research even as they focused on battling COVID. Indeed, as the fourth annual ranking of the World's Best Hospitals by Newsweek and Statista shows, consistency in excellence is the hallmark of these institutions, with familiar names dominating the list and top spots.

The hospitals that have fared best during the pandemic are those that have learned to work faster by communicating better and breaking down internal silos, according to Dr. Gregory Katz, professor of Innovation & Value in Health at the University of Paris School of Medicine: "A critical facilitator of velocity is broad participation from hospital teams. If there is one thing we take away from our fight against COVID-19, it's the value of preparation. For hospital leaders, it's all about choice, not chance."

Dr. Jens Deerberg-Wittram, CEO and president of Romed Kliniken, a German nonprofit health system, says much of that preparation comes down to being ready to pay for the nuts-and-bolts necessary to take of very sick people. "We learned over the pandemic," he says, "that those hospitals truly make a difference in a global crisis who are running expensive and resource-intense infrastructure like emergency departments, ICUs, ECMO [extracorporeal membrane oxygen machines] et cetera."

How do the leading hospitals maintain their top status in the midst of a global pandemic that has turned the medical world upside down? The ability and drive to continually innovate is key—and top talent is at the heart of that. As Bates says, "Premier hospitals remain strong largely by attracting the best people, those who are focused on developing new approaches to care and making care better."

Kaplan adds, "Top hospitals maintain their excellence by having clear and embraced missions and aspirational visions leading to constancy of purpose that is lived daily by all staff. This must be coupled with leadership constancy and consistency that creates alignment from the boardroom to the front line of care."

According to Deerberg-Wittram, "A certain intellectual mindset, an academic culture, a strong focus on patient outcomes and an inspiring environment for young talents are the ingredients for a premier hospital that lasts over decades."

This year's rankings represent an expanded universe, with three new countries on the list—Colombia, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates—bringing the total to over 2,200 hospitals in 27 countries. And the results show a remarkable cross-section of excellence across the world: Twenty one countries are represented in the global top 150. The U.S. leads with 33 hospitals, followed by Germany with 14; Italy and France with 10 each; and South Korea with eight. Overall, there were 13 new hospitals in this year's top 100. Among the biggest movers from last year's rankings were No. 14 Universitätsspital Basel, up from 35 last year; No. 28 Northwestern Memorial Hospital (58 in 2021); No. 43 Seoul's Samsung Medical Center (73) and No. 59 New York's NYU Langone Hospitals (86).

The goal of this study is to provide the best data-based comparison of hospital reputation and performance across countries. We hope this will be useful not only to patients and families seeking the best care for themselves and loved ones, but also to hospitals as they benchmark themselves against their peers during a period of unprecedented change.

Nancy Cooper Signature 2
RankHospitalCountryCityState (US only)
1Mayo Clinic - RochesterUnited StatesRochesterMN
2Cleveland ClinicUnited StatesClevelandOH
3Massachusetts General HospitalUnited StatesBostonMA
4Toronto General - University Health NetworkCanadaToronto
5Charité - Universitätsmedizin BerlinGermanyBerlin
6The Johns Hopkins HospitalUnited StatesBaltimoreMD
7AP-HP - Hôpital Universitaire Pitié SalpêtrièreFranceParis
8Karolinska UniversitetssjukhusetSwedenSolna
9UCLA Health – Ronald Reagan Medical CenterUnited StatesLos AngelesCA
10Sheba Medical CenterIsraelRamat Gan
11Centre Hospitalier Universitaire VaudoisSwitzerlandLausanne
12Singapore General HospitalSingaporeSingapore
13The University of Tokyo HospitalJapanTokyo
14Universitätsspital BaselSwitzerlandBasel
15Universitätsspital ZürichSwitzerlandZürich
16Universitätsklinikum HeidelbergGermanyHeidelberg
17Brigham And Women's HospitalUnited StatesBostonMA
18AP-HP - Hôpital Européen Georges PompidouFranceParis
19Aarhus UniversitetshospitalDenmarkAarhus
20Stanford Health Care - Stanford HospitalUnited StatesStanfordCA
21New York-Presbyterian Hospital-Columbia and CornellUnited StatesNew YorkNY
22Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität MünchenGermanyMünchen
23St. Luke's International HospitalJapanTokyo
24Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien - Medizinischer UniversitätscampusAustriaWien
25Sunnybrook Health Sciences CentreCanadaToronto
26Rigshospitalet - KøbenhavnDenmarkKøbenhavn
27Mount Sinai HospitalCanadaToronto
28Northwestern Memorial HospitalUnited StatesChicagoIL
29The Mount Sinai HospitalUnited StatesNew YorkNY
30Asan Medical CenterSouth KoreaSeoul
31Oslo UniversitetssykehusNorwayOslo
32Les Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève (HUG) - Cluse-RoseraieSwitzerlandGenève
33Medizinische Hochschule HannoverGermanyHannover
34Hospital Israelita Albert EinsteinBrazilSao Paulo
35LMU KlinikumGermanyMünchen
36University of Michigan Hospitals - Michigan MedicineUnited StatesAnn ArborMI
37Policlinico Universitario A. GemelliItalyRoma
38Amsterdam UMCThe NetherlandsAmsterdam
39Cedars-Sinai Medical CenterUnited StatesLos AngelesCA
40Duke University HospitalUnited StatesDurhamNC
41St Thomas' HospitalUnited KingdomLondon
42Helsinki University HospitalFinlandHelsinki
43Samsung Medical CenterSouth KoreaSeoul
44UMC UtrechtThe NetherlandsUtrecht
45UZ LeuvenBelgium
46Kameda Medical CenterJapanKamogawa
47CHU Lille - Hôpital Claude-HuriezFranceLille
48UCSF Medical CenterUnited StatesSan FranciscoCA
49Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-EppendorfGermanyHamburg
50Grande Ospedale Metropolitano NiguardaItalyMilano
51Akademiska SjukhusetSwedenUppsala
52Hospital Universitario La PazSpainMadrid
53Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania - Penn PresbyterianUnited StatesPhiladelphiaPA
54University College HospitalUnited KingdomLondon
55Seoul National University HospitalSouth KoreaSeoul
56Rush University Medical CenterUnited StatesChicagoIL
57Landeskrankenhaus Universitätskliniken InnsbruckAustriaInnsbruck
58Turku University HospitalFinlandTurku
59NYU Langone HospitalsUnited StatesNew YorkNY
60Policlinico Sant'Orsola-MalpighiItalyBologna
61Mayo Clinic - JacksonvilleUnited StatesJacksonvilleFL
62Leids Universitair Medisch CentrumThe NetherlandsLeiden
63Hospital Clínic de BarcelonaSpainBarcelona
64North York General HospitalCanadaToronto
65Tampere University HospitalFinlandTampere
66Hospital Universitario 12 de OctubreSpainMadrid
67UCLA Health - Santa Monica Medical CenterUnited StatesSanta MonicaCA
68Mayo Clinic - PhoenixUnited StatesPhoenixAZ
69Universitätsklinikum TübingenGermanyTübingen
70Severance Hospital - Yonsei UniversitySouth KoreaSeoul
71Royal Prince Alfred HospitalAustraliaCamperdown
72Universitätsklinikum FreiburgGermanyFreiburg
73CHU Bordeaux - Groupe hospitalier PellegrinFranceBordeaux
74Radboud Universitair Medisch CentrumThe NetherlandsNijmegen
75Hospital General Universitario Gregorio MarañónSpainMadrid
76Kyushu University HospitalJapanFukuoka
77Houston Methodist HospitalUnited StatesHoustonTX
78Center Hospital of the National Center for Global Health and MedicineJapanTokyo
79Addenbrooke'sUnited KingdomCambridge
80Ospedale San Raffaele - Gruppo San DonatoItalyMilano
81Hospital Universitari Vall d'HebronSpainBarcelona
82Landeskrankenhaus - Universitätsklinikum GrazAustriaGraz
83Istituto Clinico HumanitasItalyRozzano
84University of Wisconsin HospitalsUnited StatesMadisonWI
85The AlfredAustraliaMelbourne
86Clinica Universidad de NavarraSpainPamplona/Iruña
87The Catholic University Of Korea - Seoul St. Mary’s HospitalSouth KoreaSeoul
88University of Washington Medical CenterUnited StatesSeattleWA
89Seoul National University - Bundang HospitalSouth KoreaSeongnam City
90Hôpital Paris Saint-JosephFranceParis
91Universitätsklinikum KölnGermanyKöln
92Azienda Ospedaliera di PadovaItalyPadova
93Erasmus MCThe NetherlandsRotterdam
94Vanderbilt University Medical CenterUnited StatesNashvilleTN
95Odense UniversitetshospitalDenmarkOdense
96Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical CenterIsraelTel Aviv
97Beth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterUnited StatesBostonMA
98National University HospitalSingaporeSingapore
99Universitätsklinikum ErlangenGermanyErlangen
100Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus DresdenGermanyDresden
101UC San Diego Health - Jacobs Medical CenterUnited StatesSan DiegoCA
102Universitätsklinikum EssenGermanyEssen
103Nagoya University HospitalJapanNagoya
104Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg - Universitätsklinikum der PMUAustriaSalzburg
105Hospital Sirio LibanesBrazilSao Paulo
106Mount Elizabeth Hospital - OrchardSingaporeSingapore
107Hospices Civils de Lyon - Hôpital Lyon SudFrancePierre Benite
108Hospital Moinhos de VentoBrazilPorto Alegre
109All India Institute of Medical Sciences - DelhiIndiaDelhi
110Aalborg UniversitetshospitalDenmarkAalborg
111Universitair Medisch Centrum GroningenThe NetherlandsGroningen
112Keio University HospitalJapanTokyo
113UZ GentBelgiumGent
114Polyclinique Santé AtlantiqueFranceSt Herblain
115Ospedale Borgo TrentoItalyVerona
116Ospedale Policlinico San MatteoItalyPavia
117AP-HM - Hôpital de la TimoneFranceMarseille
118University of Chicago Medical CenterUnited StatesChicagoIL
119Ospedale Papa Giovanni XXIIIItalyBergamo
120Universitätsklinikum BonnGermanyBonn
121Ajou University HospitalSouth KoreaSuwon City
122John Radcliffe HospitalUnited KingdomOxford
123UCHealth University of Colorado HospitalUnited StatesAuroraCO
124CHU Toulouse - Hôpital PurpanFranceToulouse
125IRCCS Arcispedale Santa Maria NuovaItalyReggio Nell'Emilia
126King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research CenterSaudi Arabia
127Gleneagles HospitalSingaporeSingapore
128Academisch Ziekenhuis MaastrichtThe NetherlandsMaastricht
129Cleveland Clinic Abu DhabiUAE
130Korea University - Anam HospitalSouth KoreaSeoul
131Sahlgrenska UniversitetssjukhusetSwedenGöteborg
132Medanta The MedicityIndiaGurgaon
133St. Bartholomew's HospitalUnited KingdomLondon
134Hôpital Erasme - ULBBelgium
135Emory University HospitalUnited StatesAtlantaGA
136Royal North Shore HospitalAustraliaSt Leonards
137University Hospitals Cleveland Medical CenterUnited StatesClevelandOH
138Ordensklinikum Linz ElisabethinenAustriaLinz
139Hospices Civils de Lyon - CHU Louis PradelFranceBron
140Jewish General HospitalCanadaMontreal
141Hospital Ramón y CajalSpainMadrid
142Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorfhttp://www.uniklinik-duesseldorf.deGermanyDüsseldorf
143University of Utah HospitalUnited StatesSalt Lake CityUT
144Klinik Hirslanden ZürichSwitzerlandZürich
145Guy's HospitalUnited KingdomLondon
146Bumrungrad International HospitalThailandBangkok
147University of Kansas HospitalUnited StatesKansas CityKS
148ClaraspitalSwitzerlandBasel
149Fundación Valle Del LiliColombiaCali
150University of California - Davis Medical CenterUnited StatesSacramentoCA
151-250AP-HM - Hôpital NordFranceMarseille
151-250AP-HP - Hôpital Bichat-Claude-BernardFranceParis
151-250AP-HP - Hôpital CochinFranceParis
151-250Apollo Hospital - ChennaiIndiaChennai
151-250Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria CareggiItalyFirenze
151-250Barnes-Jewish HospitalUnited StatesSaint LouisMO
151-250Baylor University Medical CenterUnited StatesDallasTX
151-250Brigham And Women's Faulkner HospitalUnited StatesBostonMA
151-250Central Finland Central HospitalFinlandJyväskylä
151-250Centre hospitalier de l'Université de MontréalCanadaMontreal
151-250Centro Médico ABC Campus Santa FeMexicoCiudad de México
151-250Chelsea and Westminster HospitalUnited KingdomLondon
151-250CHU Grenoble - Site NordFranceLa Tronche
151-250CHU Nantes - Site Hôtel-DieuFranceNantes
151-250Chung-Ang University HospitalSouth KoreaSeoul
151-250Chungnam National University HospitalSouth KoreaDaejeon
151-250Cleveland Clinic - FloridaUnited StatesWestonFL
151-250Cleveland Clinic Fairview HospitalUnited StatesClevelandOH
151-250Clinique de La SourceSwitzerlandLausanne
151-250Clinique PasteurFranceToulouse
151-250Cliniques universitaires Saint-LucBelgiumBrussels
151-250Diakonhjemmet OsloNorwayOslo
151-250Ewha Womans University Medical CenterSouth KoreaSeoul
151-250Freeman HospitalUnited KingdomNewcastle Upon Tyne
151-250Gangnam Severance Hospital - Yonsei UniversitySouth KoreaSeoul
151-250Gold Coast University HospitalAustraliaSouthport
151-250Haukeland UniversitetssykehusNorwayBergen
151-250Hirslanden Klinik AarauSwitzerlandAarau
151-250Hokkaido University HospitalJapanHokkaido
151-250Hospices Civils de Lyon - Hôpital Edouard HerriotFranceLyon
151-250Hospital Alemão Oswaldo CruzBrazilSao Paulo
151-250Hospital Clínico San CarlosSpainMadrid
151-250Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant PauSpainBarcelona
151-250Hospital Mae de DeusBrazilPorto Alegre
151-250Hospital Médica SurMexicoCiudad de México
151-250Hospital Ruber InternacionalSpainMadrid
151-250Hospital Santa CatarinaBrazilSao Paulo
151-250Hospital Universitario Fundación Jiménez DíazSpainMadrid
151-250Hospital Universitario Puerta de HierroSpainMajadahonda
151-250Hospital Universitario Virgen del RocíoSpainSevilla
151-250Hospital Universitario y Politécnico la FeSpainValencia
151-250Inha University HospitalSouth KoreaIncheon Metropolitan City
151-250Japanese Red Cross Medical CenterJapanTokyo
151-250Juntendo University HospitalJapanTokyo
151-250Kangbuk Samsung HospitalSouth KoreaSeoul
151-250Keck Hospital of USCUnited StatesLos AngelesCA
151-250Kobe City Medical Center General HospitalJapanKobe
151-250Konkuk University Medical CenterSouth KoreaSeoul
151-250Kuopio University HospitalFinlandKuopio
151-250Kurashiki Central HospitalJapanKurashiki
151-250Kyoto University HospitalJapanKyoto
151-250Lindenhofspital BernSwitzerlandBern
151-250Linz Kepler UniversitätsklinikumAustriaLinz
151-250Morristown Medical CenterUnited StatesMorristownNJ
151-250Musashino RedCross HospitalJapanMusashino
151-250National Cancer Center HospitalJapanTokyo
151-250Norrlands UniversitetssjukhusSwedenUmeå
151-250OHSU HospitalUnited StatesPortlandOR
151-250Osaka University HospitalJapanOsaka
151-250Ospedale di ParmaItalyParma
151-250Ospedale Sacro Cuore Don CalabriaItalyNegrar
151-250Ospedale San Raffaele Turro - Gruppo San DonatoItalyMilano
151-250Österreichische Gesundheitskasse - Mein Hanusch-KrankenhausAustriaWien
151-250Presidio Ospedaliero Molinette - A.O.U. Città della Salute e della ScienzaItalyTorino
151-250Presidio Ospedaliero Spedali Civili di BresciaItalyBrescia
151-250Queen Elizabeth Hospital BirminghamUnited KingdomBirmingham
151-250Robert-Bosch-KrankenhausGermanyStuttgart
151-250Royal Brisbane & Women's HospitalAustraliaHerston
151-250Royal Melbourne Hospital - ParkvilleAustraliaParkville
151-250Scripps Memorial Hospital La JollaUnited StatesLa JollaCA
151-250Sint Antonius ZiekenhuisThe NetherlandsNieuwegein
151-250St Vincent's Hospital - FitzroyAustraliaFitzroy
151-250St. Olavs HospitalNorwayTrondheim
151-250Teine Keijinkai HospitalJapanSapporo
151-250The Catholic University Of Korea - Yeouido St. Mary’s HospitalSouth KoreaSeoul
151-250The Jikei University HospitalJapanTokyo
151-250Toranomon HospitalJapanTokyo
151-250Toranomon Hospital KajigayaJapanKawasaki
151-250Torrance Memorial Medical CenterUnited StatesTorranceCA
151-250Tufts Medical CenterUnited StatesBostonMA
151-250UAB HospitalUnited StatesBirminghamAL
151-250Universitätsklinikum des SaarlandesGermanyHomburg
151-250Universitätsklinikum FrankfurtGermanyFrankfurt am Main
151-250Universitätsklinikum JenaGermanyJena
151-250Universitätsklinikum LeipzigGermanyLeipzig
151-250Universitätsklinikum MünsterGermanyMünster
151-250Universitätsklinikum RegensburgGermanyRegensburg
151-250Universitätsklinikum RWTH AachenGermanyAachen
151-250Universitätsklinikum UlmGermanyUlm
151-250Universitätsklinikum WürzburgWürzburg
151-250Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität MainzGermanyMainz
151-250Universitätsmedizin GöttingenGermanyGöttingen
151-250Universitetssjukhuset LinköpingSwedenLinköping
151-250University of Virginia Medical CenterUnited StatesCharlottesvilleVA
151-250UT Southwestern Medical CenterUnited StatesDallasTX
151-250VCH - Vancouver General HospitalCanadaVancouver
151-250Virginia Mason Franciscan Health – Virginia Mason Medical CenterUnited StatesSeattleWA
151-250VU Medisch CentrumThe NetherlandsAmsterdam
151-250Yale New Haven HospitalUnited StatesNew HavenCT
151-250Yokohama Municipal Citizen's HospitalJapanYokohama
Licensing Information: If your hospital is listed above, you can find out more about the licensing options visiting the Statista website.

Global Board of Medical Experts:

The global board of medical experts was founded by Statista to support the World's Best Hospitals Project. The board is an independent body that is tasked with the continuous development of the quality and scope of the project. Current members of the board of experts are listed here.



Methodology

The World's Best Hospitals 2022 ranking lists the best hospitals in 27 countries: U.S.,- Germany, Japan, South Korea, France, Italy, United Kingdom, Spain, Brazil, Canada, India, Australia, Mexico, The Netherlands, Austria, Thailand, Switzerland, Sweden, Belgium, Finland, Norway, Denmark, Israel, Singapore, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Colombia.The countries were selected based on multiple comparability factors, such as standard of living/life expectancy,population size, number of hospitals and data availability. The lists are based on three data sources:
1. Over 80,0000 medical experts (doctors, hospitals managers, health care professionals) in 27 countries were invited to participate in the online survey. Participants were asked to recommend hospitals in their own country as well as in other countries. Recommendations for own employer/ hospital were not allowed.
2. Results from patient experience surveys. Publicly available data from existing patient surveys was used to analyze patient experience.Patient surveys are typically conducted by insurance companies among patients after hospitalization. Examples of survey topics include: general satisfaction with hospital, recommendation of hospital and satisfaction with medical care.
3. Medical key performance indicators (KPIs) on hospitals e.g., data on quality of treatment and hygiene measures.KPIs from a variety of public sources were collected for most countries. KPIs differ between the countries. Examples of included data are data on quality of care for specific treatments, data on hygiene measures and patient safety and data on number of patients per doctors and per nurse.

Scores were calculated for each hospital in each of the three categories and weighted: Peer recommendation (50% national, 5% international), patient experience (15%), medical KPIs (30%).

Every hospital in each country is rated by a score. Scores are only comparable between hospitals in the same country, because different sources for patient experience and medical KPIs were examined in each country. Since it was not possible to harmonize this data, cross-country comparisons of the scores are not possible (a score of 90 in country A doesn't necessarily mean that this hospital is better than a hospital with a score of 87 in country B).

The preliminary rankings were sent to an international network of medical journalists for plausibility checks. A global board of renowned medical experts validated the rankings.

The number of hospitals awarded in each country varies based on the number of hospitals and data availability in the respective country. The U.S. had the most hospitals awarded with 420, while Israel and Singapore were represented with 10 hospitals each. In total, more than 2,200 hospitals were ranked for this fourth edition of the ranking.

The online edition of this study includes a Global Top 250 list. The list includes a ranking of the 150 best global hospitals, ranks 151–250 are sorted alphabetically. The top 150 were determined by the number of international recommendations received and their national rank. Ranks 151 through 250 consist of the next best hospitals in each country. They are sorted alphabetically because the data is too heterogeneous between countries to allow for further cross-country comparison. The global list does not include specialized hospitals.

The rankings are comprised exclusively of hospitals that are eligible regarding the scope described in this article. A mention in the ranking is a positive recognition based on peer recommendations and publicly available data sources at the time. The ranking is the result of an elaborate process which, due to the interval of data-collection and analysis, is a reflection of the last calendar year. Furthermore, events preceding or following the period 01/01/2021–12/31/2021 and/or pertaining to individual persons affiliated/associated to the facilities were not included in the metrics. As such, the results of this ranking should not be used as the sole source of information for future deliberations. The information provided in this ranking should be considered in conjunction with other available information about hospitals or, if possible, accompanied by a visit to a facility. The quality of hospitals that are not included in the rankings is not disputed. The full rankings and methodology are available online.


Download the methodology overview here.
Download the extended methodology here.


Disclaimer:
The rankings are comprised exclusively of hospitals that are eligible regarding the scope described in this article. A mention in the ranking is a positive recognition based on peer recommendations and publicly available data sources at the time. The ranking is the result of an elaborate process which, due to the interval of data-collection and analysis, is a reflection of the last calendar year. Furthermore, events preceding or following the period 01/01/2021-31/12/2021 and/or pertaining to individual persons affiliated/associated to the facilities were not included in the metrics. As such, the results of this ranking should not be used as the sole source of information for future deliberations. The information provided in this ranking should be considered in conjunction with other available information about hospitals or, if possible, accompanied by a visit to a facility. The quality of hospitals that are not included in the rankings is not disputed.

Footnotes:
1 - No medical KPI was used to determine the score for these hospitals. Their scores relies on patient satisfaction data and recommendations from medical experts.
2 - No patient satisfaction data was used to determine the score for these hospitals. Their scores relies on results from medical KPIs and recommendations from medical experts.